OBJECTIVE: Psychotic versus non-psychotic patients with bipolar disorder have been traditionally associated with different unfavorable clinical features. In this study on bipolar Italian patients, we aimed to compare clinical and demographic differences between psychotic and non-psychotic individuals, exploring clinical factors that may favor early diagnosis and personalized treatment. METHODS: A total of 1671 patients (males: n = 712 and females: n = 959; bipolar type 1: n = 1038 and bipolar type 2: n = 633) from different psychiatric departments were compared according to the lifetime presence of psychotic symptoms in terms of socio-demographic and clinical variables. Chi-square tests for qualitative variables and Student's t-tests for quantitative variables were performed for group comparison, and a multivariable logistic regression was performed, considering the lifetime psychotic symptoms as dependent variables and socio-demographic/clinical characteristics as independent variables. RESULTS: Psychotic versus non-psychotic bipolar subjects resulted to: be more frequently unemployed (p < 0.01) and never married/partnered (p < 0.01); have an earlier age at onset (p < 0.01); more frequently receive a first diagnosis different from a mood disorder (p < 0.01); have a shorter duration of untreated illness (p < 0.01); have a more frequently hypomanic/manic prevalent polarity (p < 0.01) and a prevalent manic-depressive type of cycling (p < 0.01); present a lower lifetime number of depressive episodes (p < 0.01), but have more manic episodes (p < 0.01); and less insight (p < 0.01) and more hospitalizations in the last year (p < 0.01). Multivariable regression analysis showed that psychotic versus non-psychotic bipolar patients received more frequently a first diagnosis different from bipolar disorder (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = [0.46, 0.90], p = 0.02) or major depressive disorder (odds ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = [0.48, 0.91], p = 0.02), had more frequently a prevalent manic polarity (odds ratio = 1.84, 95% confidence interval = [1.14, 2.98], p < 0.01) and had a higher number of lifetime manic episodes (more than six) (odds ratio = 8.79, 95% confidence interval = [5.93, 13.05], p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Lifetime psychotic symptoms in bipolar disorder are associated with unfavorable socio-demographic and clinical features as well as with a more frequent initial misdiagnosis.
|Titolo:||Psychotic versus non-psychotic bipolar disorder : socio-demographic and clinical profiles in an Italian nationwide study.|
BUOLI, MASSIMILIANO (Secondo) [Writing – Original Draft Preparation] (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||inverse probability of treatment weighting; nephroureterectomy; Surveillance; Epidemiology and End Results; upper urinary tract; urothelial carcinoma|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/25 - Psichiatria|
|Data di pubblicazione:||ago-2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1177/0004867418823268|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|