Flavonoids have recently been suggested to have the potential to serve as antioxidants other than effective UVattenuators in photoprotection. Here,wetested the hypothesis that flavonoids accumulate in response to “excess light” in the presence or in the absence of UV radiation. In a UV exclusion experiment, we grew Ligustrum vulgare plants outdoors under 30% or 100% sunlight irradiance, by cutting-off the whole UV waveband. These plants were also exposed to UV irradiance or supplied with 125mM NaCl at the root zone. Leaves of plants under 100% sunlight irradiance suffered from excess light, which was exacerbated greatly by root zone salinity stress. Salinity stress repressed the activities of antioxidant enzymes, particularly in full sunlight, and led to severe leaf oxidative damage. Dihydroxy B-ring-substituted flavonoids, namely quercetin 3-O- and luteolin 7-O-glycosides, accumulated steeply in response to sunlight irradiance in the absence of UV radiation. UV radiation and root zone NaCl increased, to a similar degree, the concentration of these flavonoids, which have a great potential to scavenge various forms of reactive oxygen. Treatment-induced changes in leaf phenylpropanoid concentration affected antioxidant activities to a greater extent than the UV-screening capacities of leaf extracts. Early responses to an abrupt increase in sunlight irradiance included a steep increase in the concentrations of quercetin derivatives and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, with the latter negligibly absorbing in the UV-spectral region. In contrast, effective UV attenuators, such as hydroxycinnamates and monohydroxy B-ring flavonoids, were unresponsive to the light treatments. Overall, these findings lead to the hypothesis that flavonoids may have an important antioxidant function in photoprotection. This hypothesis is further corroborated by the large distribution of quercetin and luteolin derivatives in the vacuoles of mesophyll, not only in the corresponding compartments of epidermal cells, but also in full sunlight-treated leaves in the absence of UV radiation. Future experiments aimed at evaluating the relative contribution of flavonoids within the complex antioxidant defense systems operating in the leaf are needed to help conclusively address the relevance of their antioxidant functions in photoprotection.
The biosynthesis of flavonoids is enhanced similarly by UV radiation and root zone salinity in L. vulgare leaves / G. Agati, S. Biricolti, L. Guidi, F. Ferrini, A. Fini, M. Tattini. - In: JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. - ISSN 0176-1617. - 168:3(2011), pp. 204-212.
|Titolo:||The biosynthesis of flavonoids is enhanced similarly by UV radiation and root zone salinity in L. vulgare leaves|
|Parole Chiave:||antioxidant enzymes; excess light; fluorescence microimaging; flavonoids|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/03 - Arboricoltura Generale e Coltivazioni Arboree|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2011|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2010.07.016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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