Malignant melanoma is a tumor characterized by a very high level of heterogeneity, responsible for its malignant behavior and ability to escape from standard therapies. In this review we highlight the molecular and biological features of the subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), well known to be characterized by self-renewal properties, deeply involved in triggering the processes of tumor generation, metastasis, progression and drug resistance. From the molecular point of view, melanoma CSCs are identified and characterized by the expression of stemness markers, such as surface markers, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, embryonic stem cells and intracellular markers. These cells are endowed with different functional features. In particular, they play pivotal roles in the processes of tumor dissemination, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis, mediated by specific intracellular signaling pathways; moreover, they are characterized by a unique metabolic reprogramming. As reported for other types of tumors, the CSCs subpopulation in melanoma is also characterized by a low immunogenic profile as well as by the ability to escape the immune system, through the expression of a negative modulation of T cell functions and the secretion of immunosuppressive factors. These biological features allow melanoma CSCs to escape standard treatments, thus being deeply involved in tumor relapse. Targeting the CSCs subpopulation is now considered an attractive treatment strategy; in particular, combination treatments, based on both CSCs-targeting and standard drugs, will likely increase the therapeutic options for melanoma patients. The characterization of CSCs in liquid biopsies from single patients will pave the way towards precision medicine.

Cellular and molecular biology of cancer stem cells in melanoma : possible therapeutic implications / M. Marzagalli, M. Raimondi, F. Fontana, M. Montagnani Marelli, R.M. Moretti, P. Limonta. - In: SEMINARS IN CANCER BIOLOGY. - ISSN 1044-579X. - (2019 Jun 29). [Epub ahead of print]

Cellular and molecular biology of cancer stem cells in melanoma : possible therapeutic implications

M. Marzagalli;M. Raimondi;F. Fontana;M. Montagnani Marelli;R.M. Moretti;P. Limonta
2019-06-29

Abstract

Malignant melanoma is a tumor characterized by a very high level of heterogeneity, responsible for its malignant behavior and ability to escape from standard therapies. In this review we highlight the molecular and biological features of the subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), well known to be characterized by self-renewal properties, deeply involved in triggering the processes of tumor generation, metastasis, progression and drug resistance. From the molecular point of view, melanoma CSCs are identified and characterized by the expression of stemness markers, such as surface markers, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, embryonic stem cells and intracellular markers. These cells are endowed with different functional features. In particular, they play pivotal roles in the processes of tumor dissemination, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis, mediated by specific intracellular signaling pathways; moreover, they are characterized by a unique metabolic reprogramming. As reported for other types of tumors, the CSCs subpopulation in melanoma is also characterized by a low immunogenic profile as well as by the ability to escape the immune system, through the expression of a negative modulation of T cell functions and the secretion of immunosuppressive factors. These biological features allow melanoma CSCs to escape standard treatments, thus being deeply involved in tumor relapse. Targeting the CSCs subpopulation is now considered an attractive treatment strategy; in particular, combination treatments, based on both CSCs-targeting and standard drugs, will likely increase the therapeutic options for melanoma patients. The characterization of CSCs in liquid biopsies from single patients will pave the way towards precision medicine.
cancer progression; cancer stem cells (CSCs); CSC markers; drug resistance; melanoma
Settore BIO/13 - Biologia Applicata
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
Dipartimenti di Eccellenza 2018-2022 - Dipartimento di SCIENZE FARMACOLOGICHE E BIOMOLECOLARI
29-giu-2019
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/660140
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