Microenvironment-related immune and inflammatory markers, when combined with established Ki-67 and morphology parameters, can improve prognostic prediction in gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs). Therefore, we evaluate the prognostic value of microenvironment and tumor inflammatory features (MoTIFs) in GEP-NENs. For this purpose, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 350 patients were profiled by immunohistochemistry for immune, inflammatory, angiogenesis, proliferation, NEN-, and fibroblast-related markers. A total of 314 patients were used to generate overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) MoTIFs prognostic indices (PIs). PIs and additional variables were assessed using Cox models to generate nomograms for predicting 5-year OS and DFS. A total of 36 patients were used for external validation of PIs and nomograms' prognostic segregations. From our analysis, G1/G2 versus G3 GEP-NENs showed phenotypic divergence with immune-inflammatory markers. HLA, CD3, CD8, and PD-1/PD-L1 IHC expression separated G3 into two sub-categories with high versus low adaptive immunity-related features. MoTIFs PI for OS based on COX-2Tumor(T) > 4, PD-1Stromal(S) > 0, CD8S < 1, and HLA-IS < 1 was associated with worst survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.12-2.96; p < 0.0001). MoTIFs PI for DFS was based on COX-2T > 4, PD-1S > 4, HLA-IS < 1, HLA-IT < 2, HLA-DRS < 6 (HR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.58-1.99; p < 0.0001). Two nomograms were developed including morphology (HR 4.83; 95% CI, 2.30-10.15; p < 0.001) and Ki-67 (HR 11.32; 95% CI, 5.28-24.24; p < 0.001) for OS, and morphology (PI = 0: HR 10.23; 95% CI, 5.67-18.47; PI = 5: HR 2.87; 95% CI, 1.21-6.81; p < 0.001) and MoTIFs PI for DFS in well-differentiated GEP-NENs (HR 6.21; 95% CI, 2.52-13.31; p < 0.001). We conclude that G1/G2 to G3 transition is associated with immune-inflammatory profile changes; in fact, MoTIFs combined with morphology and Ki-67 improve 5-year DFS prediction in GEP-NENs. The immune context of a subset of G3 poorly differentiated tumors is consistent with activation of adaptive immunity, suggesting a potential for responsiveness to immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoints.

Microenvironment and tumor inflammatory features improve prognostic prediction in gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms / M. Milione, R. Miceli, F. Barretta, A. Pellegrinelli, P. Spaggiari, G. Tagliabue, G. Centonze, C. Paolino, A. Mangogna, K. Kankava, S. Pusceddu, L. Giacomelli, A. Corti, C. Cotsoglou, V. Mazzaferro, G. Sozzi, F. de Braud, G. Pruneri, A. Anichini. - In: THE JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY. CLINICAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 2056-4538. - 5:4(2019 Oct), pp. 217-226.

Microenvironment and tumor inflammatory features improve prognostic prediction in gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

S. Pusceddu;C. Cotsoglou;V. Mazzaferro;F. de Braud;G. Pruneri
Penultimo
;
2019

Abstract

Microenvironment-related immune and inflammatory markers, when combined with established Ki-67 and morphology parameters, can improve prognostic prediction in gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs). Therefore, we evaluate the prognostic value of microenvironment and tumor inflammatory features (MoTIFs) in GEP-NENs. For this purpose, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 350 patients were profiled by immunohistochemistry for immune, inflammatory, angiogenesis, proliferation, NEN-, and fibroblast-related markers. A total of 314 patients were used to generate overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) MoTIFs prognostic indices (PIs). PIs and additional variables were assessed using Cox models to generate nomograms for predicting 5-year OS and DFS. A total of 36 patients were used for external validation of PIs and nomograms' prognostic segregations. From our analysis, G1/G2 versus G3 GEP-NENs showed phenotypic divergence with immune-inflammatory markers. HLA, CD3, CD8, and PD-1/PD-L1 IHC expression separated G3 into two sub-categories with high versus low adaptive immunity-related features. MoTIFs PI for OS based on COX-2Tumor(T) > 4, PD-1Stromal(S) > 0, CD8S < 1, and HLA-IS < 1 was associated with worst survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.12-2.96; p < 0.0001). MoTIFs PI for DFS was based on COX-2T > 4, PD-1S > 4, HLA-IS < 1, HLA-IT < 2, HLA-DRS < 6 (HR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.58-1.99; p < 0.0001). Two nomograms were developed including morphology (HR 4.83; 95% CI, 2.30-10.15; p < 0.001) and Ki-67 (HR 11.32; 95% CI, 5.28-24.24; p < 0.001) for OS, and morphology (PI = 0: HR 10.23; 95% CI, 5.67-18.47; PI = 5: HR 2.87; 95% CI, 1.21-6.81; p < 0.001) and MoTIFs PI for DFS in well-differentiated GEP-NENs (HR 6.21; 95% CI, 2.52-13.31; p < 0.001). We conclude that G1/G2 to G3 transition is associated with immune-inflammatory profile changes; in fact, MoTIFs combined with morphology and Ki-67 improve 5-year DFS prediction in GEP-NENs. The immune context of a subset of G3 poorly differentiated tumors is consistent with activation of adaptive immunity, suggesting a potential for responsiveness to immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoints.
Ki-67; disease-free survival; gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm; immune and inflammatory markers; microenvironment; morphology
Settore MED/06 - Oncologia Medica
ott-2019
28-mag-2019
Article (author)
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Milione_et_al-2019-The_Journal_of_Pathology__Clinical_Research.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Publisher's version/PDF
Dimensione 921.57 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
921.57 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/659794
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 13
  • Scopus 31
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 29
social impact