The emergence of resistance toward artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has the potential to severely compromise malaria control. Therefore, the development of new artemisinins in combination with new drugs that impart activities toward both intraerythrocytic proliferative asexual and transmissible gametocyte stages, in particular, those of resistant parasites, is urgently required. We define artemisinins as oxidant drugs through their ability to oxidize reduced flavin cofactors of flavin disulfide reductases critical for maintaining redox homeostasis in the malaria parasite. Here we compare the activities of 10-amino artemisinin derivatives toward the asexual and gametocyte stages of P. falciparum parasites. Of these, artemisone and artemiside inhibited asexual and gametocyte stages, particularly stage V gametocytes, in the low-nanomolar range. Further, treatment of both early and late gametocyte stages with artemisone or artemiside combined with the pro-oxidant redox partner methylene blue displayed notable synergism. These data suggest that modulation of redox homeostasis is likely an important druggable process, particularly in gametocytes, and this finding thereby enhances the prospect of using combinations of oxidant and redox drugs for malaria control.

Artemisone and artemiside are potent panreactive antimalarial agents that also synergize redox imbalance in plasmodium falciparum transmissible gametocyte stages / D. Coertzen, J. Reader, M. Van Der Watt, S.H. Nondaba, L. Gibhard, L. Wiesner, P. Smith, S. D'Alessandro, D. Taramelli, H.N. Wong, J.L. Du Preez, R.W.K. Wu, L.-. Birkholtz, R.K. Haynes. - In: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY. - ISSN 0066-4804. - 62:8(2018 Aug), pp. e02214-17.1-e02214-17.17. [10.1128/AAC.02214-17]

Artemisone and artemiside are potent panreactive antimalarial agents that also synergize redox imbalance in plasmodium falciparum transmissible gametocyte stages

S. D'Alessandro;D. Taramelli;
2018-08

Abstract

The emergence of resistance toward artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has the potential to severely compromise malaria control. Therefore, the development of new artemisinins in combination with new drugs that impart activities toward both intraerythrocytic proliferative asexual and transmissible gametocyte stages, in particular, those of resistant parasites, is urgently required. We define artemisinins as oxidant drugs through their ability to oxidize reduced flavin cofactors of flavin disulfide reductases critical for maintaining redox homeostasis in the malaria parasite. Here we compare the activities of 10-amino artemisinin derivatives toward the asexual and gametocyte stages of P. falciparum parasites. Of these, artemisone and artemiside inhibited asexual and gametocyte stages, particularly stage V gametocytes, in the low-nanomolar range. Further, treatment of both early and late gametocyte stages with artemisone or artemiside combined with the pro-oxidant redox partner methylene blue displayed notable synergism. These data suggest that modulation of redox homeostasis is likely an important druggable process, particularly in gametocytes, and this finding thereby enhances the prospect of using combinations of oxidant and redox drugs for malaria control.
Artemisinins; Gametocytes; Oxidative stress; Plasmodium falciparum; Reactive oxygen species; Synergism
Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale
Settore MED/07 - Microbiologia e Microbiologia Clinica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/658186
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