This paper describes the results of a rhizoremediation greenhouse experiment planned to select the best plant species and soil management for the bioremediation of weathered polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We evaluated the ability of different plant species to stimulate activity and diversity of the soil microbial community leading to the reduction of PCB concentrations in a heavily contaminated soil (at mg kg-1 dw level), of the national priority site for remediation (SIN) “Brescia-Caffaro” in Italy. Biostimulation was determined in large size (6 kg) pots, to reflect semi-field conditions with a soil/root volume ratio larger than in most rhizoremediation experiments present in the literature. In total, 10 treatments were tested in triplicates comparing 7 plant species (grass and trees) and 5 soil/cultivation conditions (i.e., only one plant species, plant consociation, redox cycle, compost or ammonium thiosulfate addition) with the appropriate unplanted controls. After 18 months of biostimulation the overall reduction of total PCBs varied between 14 and 20%. Microbial analysis revealed a shift in the microbial community structure over time and showed that all the planted treatments significantly enhanced microbial hydrolytic activity and the abundance of bacterial populations, including potential PCB degraders, in the soil surrounding plant roots. The plant species most effective in reducing the contaminant concentrations were Festuca arundinacea cultivated adding compost or in consociation with Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo and Medicago sativa cultivated with Rhizobium spp. and mycorrhizal fungi; they reduced total PCB concentrations of about 20% and showed the significant depletion of a high number of PCB congeners (29, 37 and 23, respectively, out of the 79 measured). Our results suggest that these plant species are particularly efficient in increasing soil PCB bioavailability and in stimulating microbial degradation. They could be used in field rhizoremediation strategies to enhance the natural attenuation process and reduce PCB levels in historically contaminated sites.
Rhizoremediation of weathered PCBs in a heavily contaminated agricultural soil : results of a biostimulation trial in semi field conditions / E. Terzaghi, L. Vergani, F. Mapelli, S. Borin, G. Raspa, E. Zanardini, C. Morosini, S. Anelli, P. Nastasio, V.M. Sale, S. Armiraglio, A. Di Guardo. - In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. - ISSN 0048-9697. - 686(2019), pp. 484-496.
|Titolo:||Rhizoremediation of weathered PCBs in a heavily contaminated agricultural soil : results of a biostimulation trial in semi field conditions|
VERGANI, LORENZO (Co-primo)
|Parole Chiave:||Bioavailability; Biodegradation; Contaminated site; Greenhouse; Natural attenuation; Plants|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/16 - Microbiologia Agraria|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.458|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|