The relationship between infant's gender and rate of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in a prospective cohort of 4151 children (2166 boys and 1985 girls) born to HIV-1-infected mothers enrolled in the Italian Register for HIV Infection in Children. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate crude odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% CIs for factors potentially influencing MTCT separately for the period 1985-1995 and the period 1996-2001. To evaluate rates of MTCT by gender in specific subgroups, separate logistic regression models by mode of delivery and antiretroviral prophylaxis were performed. Among children born in 1985-1995, 15.5% boys (95% CI: 13.6-17.7) and 17.9% girls (95% CI: 15.7-20.3) were infected (P = 0.1181). After 1995, a lower proportion of boys (3.1% [95% CI: 2.0-4.4]; AOR: 0.43 [95% CI: 0.26-0.71], P = 0.0008) than girls (AOR: 6.3%, 95% CI: 4.8-8.1) was infected. Lower AORs for boys persisted independently of elective cesarean delivery (AOR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.71); other than elective cesarean (AOR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.19-0.78) and antiretroviral prophylaxis (zidovudine monotherapy (AOR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03-0.38); none (AOR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.90). No difference was observed when combined therapy in the mother was administered (AOR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.30-4.32), but results were likely to be biased by the very low rate of infected children in this group. A lower proportion of HIV-1-infected boys in children born after 1995 was found. Factor(s) intrinsic to gender (rather than type of delivery or maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis) may be involved, because the risk of infection in boys was lower independent of interventions. A possible explanation is that, among infected fetuses, more girls survive up to the end of pregnancy and may take advantage of the benefits of preventive strategies.
|Titolo:||Lower Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission in Boys Is Independent of Type of Delivery and Antiretroviral Prophylaxis|
|Parole Chiave:||Antiretroviral prophylaxis; Infant's gender; Vertical transmission|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1097/01.qai.0000164247.49098.0e|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|