In the framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we derive a new model for many-particle electrodes. The model is applied to (LFP) electrodes consisting of many LFP particles of nanometer size. The phase transition from a lithium-poor to a lithium-rich phase within LFP electrodes is controlled by both different particle sizes and surface fluctuations leading to a system of stochastic differential equations. An explicit relation between battery voltage and current controlled by the thermodynamic state variables is derived. This voltage-current relation reveals that in thin LFP electrodes lithium intercalation from the particle surfaces into the LFP particles is the principal rate-limiting process. There are only two constant kinetic parameters in the model describing the intercalation rate and the fluctuation strength, respectively. The model correctly predicts several features of LFP electrodes, viz. the phase transition, the observed voltage plateaus, hysteresis and the rate-limiting capacity. Moreover we study the impact of both the particle size distribution and the active surface area on the voltage-charge characteristics of the electrode. Finally we carefully discuss the phase transition for varying charging/discharging rates.
Stochastic many-particle model for LFP electrodes / C. Guhlke, P. Gajewski, M. Maurelli, P.K. Friz, W. Dreyer. - In: CONTINUUM MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS. - ISSN 0935-1175. - 30:3(2018 May), pp. 593-628.
|Titolo:||Stochastic many-particle model for LFP electrodes|
|Parole Chiave:||Lithium-ion battery; Lithium iron phosphate; Phase transitions; Many-particle electrode|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MAT/06 - Probabilita' e Statistica Matematica|
Settore FIS/03 - Fisica della Materia
|Data di pubblicazione:||mag-2018|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00161-018-0629-7|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|