Background: Neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutics, including bortezomib. The mechanisms underlying this condition are not fully elucidated even if a contribution of neuroinflammation was suggested. Here, we investigated the role of a chemokine family, the prokineticins (PKs), in the development of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN), and we used a PK receptor antagonist to counteract the development and progression of the pathology. Methods: Neuropathy was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by using a protocol capable to induce a detectable neuropathic phenotype limiting systemic side effects. The presence of allodynia (both mechanical and thermal) and thermal hyperalgesia was monitored over time. Mice were sacrificed at two different time points: 14 and 28 days after the first bortezomib (BTZ) injection. At these times, PK system activation (PK2 and PK-Rs), macrophage and glial activation markers, and cytokine production were evaluated in the main station involved in pain transmission (sciatic nerve, DRG, and spinal cord), and the effect of a PK receptors antagonist (PC1) on the same behavioral and biochemical parameters was assessed. Structural damage of DRG during BTZ treatment and an eventual protective effect of PC1 were also evaluated. Results: BTZ induces in mice a dose-related allodynia and hyperalgesia and a progressive structural damage to the DRG. We observed a precocious increase of macrophage activation markers and unbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in sciatic nerve and DRG together with an upregulation of GFAP in the spinal cord. At higher BTZ cumulative dose PK2 and PK receptors are upregulated in the PNS and in the spinal cord. The therapeutic treatment with the PK-R antagonist PC1 counteracts the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia, ameliorates the structural damage in the PNS, decreases the levels of activated macrophage markers, and prevents full neuroimmune activation in the spinal cord. Conclusions: PK system may be a strategical pharmacological target to counteract BTZ-induced peripheral neuropathy. Blocking PK2 activity reduces progressive BTZ toxicity in the DRG, reducing neuroinflammation and structural damage to DRG, and it may prevent spinal cord sensitization.

Targeting prokineticin system counteracts hypersensitivity, neuroinflammation and tissue damage in a mouse model of bortezomib induced peripheral neuropathy / G. Moschetti, G. Amodeo, D. Maftei, R. Lattanzi, P. Procacci, P. Sartori, G. Balboni, V. Onnis, V. Conte, A. Panerai, P. Sacerdote, S. Franchi. - In: JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION. - ISSN 1742-2094. - 16(2019 Apr 17), pp. 89.1-89.16.

Targeting prokineticin system counteracts hypersensitivity, neuroinflammation and tissue damage in a mouse model of bortezomib induced peripheral neuropathy

G. Moschetti;G. Amodeo;P. Procacci;P. Sartori;V. Conte;A. Panerai;P. Sacerdote;S. Franchi
2019-04-17

Abstract

Background: Neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutics, including bortezomib. The mechanisms underlying this condition are not fully elucidated even if a contribution of neuroinflammation was suggested. Here, we investigated the role of a chemokine family, the prokineticins (PKs), in the development of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN), and we used a PK receptor antagonist to counteract the development and progression of the pathology. Methods: Neuropathy was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by using a protocol capable to induce a detectable neuropathic phenotype limiting systemic side effects. The presence of allodynia (both mechanical and thermal) and thermal hyperalgesia was monitored over time. Mice were sacrificed at two different time points: 14 and 28 days after the first bortezomib (BTZ) injection. At these times, PK system activation (PK2 and PK-Rs), macrophage and glial activation markers, and cytokine production were evaluated in the main station involved in pain transmission (sciatic nerve, DRG, and spinal cord), and the effect of a PK receptors antagonist (PC1) on the same behavioral and biochemical parameters was assessed. Structural damage of DRG during BTZ treatment and an eventual protective effect of PC1 were also evaluated. Results: BTZ induces in mice a dose-related allodynia and hyperalgesia and a progressive structural damage to the DRG. We observed a precocious increase of macrophage activation markers and unbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in sciatic nerve and DRG together with an upregulation of GFAP in the spinal cord. At higher BTZ cumulative dose PK2 and PK receptors are upregulated in the PNS and in the spinal cord. The therapeutic treatment with the PK-R antagonist PC1 counteracts the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia, ameliorates the structural damage in the PNS, decreases the levels of activated macrophage markers, and prevents full neuroimmune activation in the spinal cord. Conclusions: PK system may be a strategical pharmacological target to counteract BTZ-induced peripheral neuropathy. Blocking PK2 activity reduces progressive BTZ toxicity in the DRG, reducing neuroinflammation and structural damage to DRG, and it may prevent spinal cord sensitization.
prokineticins; neuropathic pain; bortezomib; neuroinflammation; macrophages
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
Pathobiology of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a role of the Prokineticin system
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/640586
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