Introduction: Understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is crucially important in order to be able to discriminate the steps that lead to B cell transformation and promptly identify the patients at risk of lymphomagenesis. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the evidence concerning the role that infections or dysbiosis plays in the epigenetic control of gene expression in SS patients and their possible involvement in B cell lymphomagenesis. Materials and Methods: We searched the PubMed and Google Scholar databases and selected a total of 92 articles published during the last 25 years that describe experimental and clinical studies of the potential associations of microbiota and epigenetic aberrations with the risk of B cell lymphoma in SS patients. Results and Discussion: The genetic background of SS patients is characterized by the hyperexpression of genes that are mainly involved in regulating the innate and adaptive immune responses and oncogenesis. In addition, salivary gland epithelial cells and lymphocytes both have an altered epigenetic background that enhances the activation of proinflammatory and survival pathways. Dysbiosis or chronic latent infections may tune the immune response and modify the cell epigenetic machinery in such a way as to give B lymphocytes an activated or transformed phenotype. It is also worth noting that transposable integrated retroelements may participate in the pathogenesis of SS and B cell lymphomagenesis by inducing DNA breaks, modulating cell gene expression, or generating aberrant transcripts that chronically stimulate the immune system. Conclusions: Microorganisms may epigenetically modify target cells and induce their transcriptome to generate an activated or transformed phenotype. The occurrence of lymphoma in more than 15% of SS patients may be the end result of a combination of genetics, epigenetics, and dysbiosis or latent infections.
Microbial Agents as Putative Inducers of B Cell Lymphoma in Sjögren's Syndrome through an Impaired Epigenetic Control : The State-of-The-Art / R. Talotta, P. Sarzi-Puttini, F. Atzeni. - In: JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH. - ISSN 2314-8861. - 2019(2019), pp. 8567364.1-8567364.11.
|Titolo:||Microbial Agents as Putative Inducers of B Cell Lymphoma in Sjögren's Syndrome through an Impaired Epigenetic Control : The State-of-The-Art|
TALOTTA, ROSSELLA (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||Immunology and Allergy; Immunology|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/16 - Reumatologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8567364|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|