Fish and piscivorous bird eggs collected in 2003 from Lake Maggiore (Italy), were analysed for PCB and DDT contamination. Lake Maggiore has been severely polluted by DDT through production of the pesticide within its catchment. Although agricultural application of DDT was banned in Italy in the 1978, industrial production continued until 1996, with enough contamination of water and soil for serious bioaccumulation in the lake biota. PCB and DDT concentrations in a whitefish (Coregonus macrophthalmus Nusslin 1882) were seen to be dependent on season and fish age, but not on sex. The average increase of the lipid-normalised concentration of DDTs and PCBs was two-fold across season and also across age, resulting in an overall increase of four fold. The seasonal variation was related to the eco-physiological cycle of the fish and to the contamination dynamic of the lake, while the effect of the fish age was explained on the base of biomagnification-related mechanisms. A fugacity model was applied to predict the age-dependent bioaccumulation potential of PCBs, whose concentrations were rather stable in recent years in the lake. Predicted values for compounds with negligible biotransformation were in good agreement with experimental data (calculated vs. experimental mean difference of 14%), and a relationship between the increase of experimental age-dependent concentration and K ow was observed. The good correspondence between the predicted and the measured values for most PCB congeners confirmed the general inability of fishes to biotransform these compounds. On the contrary, the importance of biotransformation processes was recognised in birds; eggs of a fish eating bird (Podiceps cristatus) from the same area selectively bioaccumulated p,p-DDE. For PCBs, congener 149 appears to be completely metabolized by the bird species, and congeners 95, 101, 132, 151 and 174 were reduced as well. The role of the meta-para free position on at least one phenyl ring of PCB congeners in biotransformation processes was confirmed.
|Titolo:||Age-dependent bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in fish and their selective biotransormation in top predators from Lake Maggiore (Italy)|
TREMOLADA, PAOLO CARLO MARIA (Secondo)
GALASSI, SILVANA (Ultimo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/07 - Ecologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s11270-008-9803-z|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|