Since the structure of GM1 was elucidated 55years ago, researchers have been attracted by the sialylated glycans of gangliosides. Gangliosides head groups, protruding toward the extracellular space, significantly contribute to the cell glycocalyx; and in certain cells, such as neurons, are major determinants of the features of the cell surface. Expression of glycosyltransferases involved in the de novo biosynthesis of gangliosides is tightly regulated along cell differentiation and activation, and is regarded as the main metabolic mechanism responsible for the acquisition of cell-specific ganglioside patterns. The resulting sialooligosaccharides are characterized by a high degree of geometrical complexity and by highly dynamic properties, which seem to be functional for complex interactions with other molecules sitting on the same cellular membrane (cis-interactions) or soluble molecules present in the extracellular environment, or molecules associated with the surface of other cells (trans-interactions). There is no doubt that the multifaceted biological functions of gangliosides are largely dependent on oligosaccharide-mediated molecular interactions. However, gangliosides are amphipathic membrane lipids, and their chemicophysical, aggregational, and, consequently, biological properties are dictated by the properties of the monomers as a whole, which are not merely dependent on the structures of their polar head groups. In this chapter, we would like to focus on the peculiar chemicophysical features of gangliosides (in particular, those of the nervous system), that represent an important driving force determining the organization and properties of cellular membranes, and to emphasize the causal connections between altered ganglioside-dependent membrane organization and relevant pathological conditions.
Gangliosides in Membrane Organization / S. Sonnino, E. Chiricozzi, S. Grassi, L. Mauri, S. Prioni, A. Prinetti. - In: PROGRESS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE. - ISSN 1877-1173. - 156(2018), pp. 83-120.
|Titolo:||Gangliosides in Membrane Organization|
PRINETTI, ALESSANDRO ENNIO GIUSEPPE (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||gangliosides; glycolipid-enriched membrane microdomains; lipid rafts; liquid-ordered phase; membrane domains|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pmbts.2017.12.007|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|