The aim of this work was to establish an analytical method for identifying the botanical origin of honey, as an alternative to conventional melissopalynological, organoleptic and instrumental methods (gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC). The procedure is based on the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) profile coupled, when necessary, with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and two-dimensional NMR analyses of solid-phase extraction (SPE)-purified honey samples, followed by chemometric analyses. Extracts of 44 commercial Italian honeys from 20 different botanical sources were analyzed. Honeydew, chestnut and linden honeys showed constant, specific, well-resolved resonances, suitable for use as markers of origin. Honeydew honey contained the typical resonances of an aliphatic component, very likely deriving from the plant phloem sap or excreted into it by sap-sucking aphids. Chestnut honey contained the typical signals of kynurenic acid and some structurally related metabolite. In linden honey the 1H NMR profile gave strong signals attributable to the mono-terpene derivative cyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylic acid (CDCA) and to its 1-O-β-gentiobiosyl ester (CDCA-GBE). These markers were not detectable in the other honeys, except for the less common nectar honey from rosa mosqueta. We compared and analyzed the data by multivariate techniques. Principal component analysis found different clusters of honeys based on the presence of these specific markers. The results, although obviously only preliminary, suggest that the 1H NMR profile (with HPLC-MS analysis when necessary) can be used as a reference framework for identifying the botanical origin of honey.
A solid-phase extraction procedure coupled to 1H NMR, with chemometric analysis, to seek reliable markers of the botanical origin of honey / G. Beretta, E. Caneva, L. Regazzoni, N. Golbamaki Bakhtyari, R. Maffei Facino. - In: ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA. - ISSN 0003-2670. - 620:1-2(2008), pp. 176-182.
|Titolo:||A solid-phase extraction procedure coupled to 1H NMR, with chemometric analysis, to seek reliable markers of the botanical origin of honey|
BERETTA, GIANGIACOMO (Primo)
CANEVA, ENRICO (Secondo)
MAFFEI FACINO, ROBERTO (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||honey; markers; secondary metabolites; H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance; mass spectrometry; chemometrics|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore CHIM/08 - Chimica Farmaceutica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2008|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.05.025|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|