In the past 10 years, the number of endosymbionts described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales has constantly grown. Since 2006, 18 novel Rickettsiales genera inhabiting protists, such as ciliates and amoebae, have been described. In this work, we characterize two novel bacterial endosymbionts from Paramecium collected near Bloomington, IN. Both endosymbiotic species inhabit the cytoplasm of the same host. The Gram-negative bacterium "Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis" occurs in clumps and is frequently associated with the host macronucleus. With its electron-dense cytoplasm and a distinct halo surrounding the cell, it is easily distinguishable from the second smaller symbiont, "Candidatus Fokinia cryptica," whose cytoplasm is electron lucid, lacks a halo, and is always surrounded by a symbiontophorous vacuole. For molecular characterization, the small-subunit rRNA genes were sequenced and used for taxonomic assignment as well as the design of species-specific oligonucleotide probes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that "Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis" clusters with the so-called "basal" Rickettsiales, and "Candidatus Fokinia cryptica" belongs to "Candidatus Midichloriaceae." We obtained tree topologies showing a separation of Rickettsiales into at least two groups: one represented by the families Rickettsiaceae, Anaplasmataceae, and "Candidatus Midichloriaceae" (RAM clade), and the other represented by "basal Rickettsiales," including "Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis." Therefore, and in accordance with recent publications, we propose to limit the order Rickettsiales to the RAM clade and to raise "basal Rickettsiales" to an independent order, Holosporales ord. nov., inside Alphaproteobacteria, which presently includes four family-level clades. Additionally, we define the family "Candidatus Hepatincolaceae" and redefine the family Holosporaceae.
Disentangling the taxonomy of Rickettsiales and description of two novel symbionts ("Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis" and "Candidatus Fokinia cryptica") sharing the cytoplasm of the ciliate protist Paramecium biaurelia / F. Szokoli, M. Castelli, E. Sabaneyeva, M. Schrallhammer, S. Krenek, T.G. Doak, T.U. Berendonk, G. Petroni. - In: APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. - ISSN 0099-2240. - 82:24(2016 Dec), pp. 7236-7247.
|Titolo:||Disentangling the taxonomy of Rickettsiales and description of two novel symbionts ("Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis" and "Candidatus Fokinia cryptica") sharing the cytoplasm of the ciliate protist Paramecium biaurelia|
|Parole Chiave:||Alphaproteobacteria; Cytoplasm; Paramecium; Phylogeny; Rickettsiaceae; Symbiosis; Biotechnology; Food Science; Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology; Ecology|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/05 - Zoologia|
Settore BIO/19 - Microbiologia Generale
|Data di pubblicazione:||dic-2016|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02284-16|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|