The total experimental electron density distributions p(r) of zwitterionic L- and DL-alanine crystals, as derived from extensive sets of X-ray diffracted intensities collected at 23 and 19 K, are compared to gain an insight into the different physical properties of the two related chiral compounds in the solid state and to explore the extent of the p(r) transferability. Relevant parameters that characterize the two crystal forms are obtained, showing differences and similarities in terms of (i) geometric descriptors, (ii) topological indexes, (iii) molecular electrostatic potential Φ(r) distributions, (iv) atomic volumes and charges, (v) molecular electric moments, and (vi) electrostatic interaction energies. To assess the relative stability of the racemate with respect to the pure enantiomer, the crystal lattice energies, as obtained through DFT fully periodic calculations, are also discussed and compared with the experimental sublimation enthalpies after correction for the proton-transfer energies. In-crystal group charges, evaluated with the quantum theory of atoms in molecules, are found to be transferable between the racemic and the pure enantiomer, at variance with group volumes. Similarly, molecular first and third moments are not strictly transferable and indicate that for the zwitterionic alanine molecule the molecular charge distribution in the DL-crystal is more polarized in the c direction by about 10%. By contrast, quantitative agreement is observed for second and fourth moments. Significant differences arise from (1) the crystal packing of the dipole vectors, which are aligned in an antiparallel fashion in the L-crystal, to be compared with a parallel alignment in the racemate, due the polar space group Pna21 of the latter, (2) the strongly attractive electrostatic energy of a homochiral pair in the L-crystal, which is opposed to the corresponding heterochiral pair in the DL-crystal form. The difference between these Ees values amounts to 135-150 kJ mol-1. Despite this, the two crystal forms are predicted as equally thermodynamically favored by the theoretical P-B3LYP estimates of the crystal lattice energies. Finally, the necessity of an upgrading of the dispersion and exchange-repulsion terms currently adopted within the experimental charge density approach to intermolecular interactions is recognized and discussed.
|Titolo:||Physicochemical properties of zwitterionic L- and DL-alanine crystals from their experimental and theoretical charge densities|
DESTRO, RICCARDO (Primo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore CHIM/02 - Chimica Fisica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2008|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1021/jp710496q|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|