In immunosuppressed patients, BKPyV-variants emerge carrying rearranged non-coding control-regions (rr-NCCRs) that increase early viral gene region (EVGR) expression and replication capacity. BKPyV also encodes microRNAs, which have been reported to downregulate EVGR-encoded large T-antigen transcripts, to decrease viral replication in infected cells and to be secreted in exosomes. To investigate the interplay of NCCR and microRNAs, we compared archetype- and rr-NCCR-BKPyV infection in cell culture. We found that laboratory and clinical rr-NCCR-BKPyV-strains show higher replication rates but significantly lower microRNA levels than archetype virus intracellularly and in exosomes. To investigate whether rr-NCCR or increased EVGR activity modulated microRNA levels, we examined the (sp1-4)NCCR-BKPyV, which has an archetype NCCR-architecture but shows increased EVGR expression due to point mutations inactivating one Sp1 binding site. We found that microRNA levels following (sp1-4)NCCR-BKPyV infection were as low as in rr-NCCR-variants. Thus, NCCR rearrangements are not required for lower miRNA levels. Accordingly, Sp1 siRNA knock-down decreased microRNA levels in archetype BKPyV infection but had no effect on (sp1-4)- or rr-NCCR-BKPyV. However, rr-NCCR-BKPyV replication was downregulated by exosome preparations carrying BKPyV-microRNA prior to infection. To explore the potential relevance in humans, urine samples from 12 natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients were analysed. In 7 patients, rr-NCCR-BKPyV were detected showing high urine BKPyV loads but low microRNAs levels, whereas the opposite was seen in 5 patients with archetype BKPyV. We discuss the results in a dynamic model of BKPyV replication according to NCCR activity and exosome regulation, which integrates immune selection pressure, spread to new host cells and rr-NCCR emergence.
BK polyomavirus microRNA levels in exosomes are modulated by non-coding control region activity and down-regulate viral replication when delivered to non-infected cells prior to infection / F. Martelli, Z. Wu, S. Delbue, F.H. Weissbach, M.C. Giulioli, P. Ferrante, H.H. Hirsch, S. Giannecchini. - In: VIRUSES. - ISSN 1999-4915. - 10:9(2018 Sep).
|Titolo:||BK polyomavirus microRNA levels in exosomes are modulated by non-coding control region activity and down-regulate viral replication when delivered to non-infected cells prior to infection|
|Parole Chiave:||Bk virus; Exosomes; Immunosuppression; microRNA; Non-coding control region; Persistence; Polyomavirus; Animals; Antiviral Agents; BK Virus; COS Cells; Cercopithecus aethiops; Exosomes; Humans; Immunocompromised Host; MicroRNAs; RNA, Viral; Urine; Viral Load; Virus Replication; Infectious Diseases; Virology|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/07 - Microbiologia e Microbiologia Clinica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||set-2018|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10090466|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|