Background: In multiple myeloma (MM), next generation sequencing (NGS) has expanded our knowledge of genomic lesions, and highlighted a dynamic and heterogeneous composition. Despite a growing number of cases sequenced, the full potential of NGS studies has not been exploited so far.Aims: We used a custom target pulldown (TPD) approach on a large cohort of MM samples at diagnosis, with homogeneous treatment and long follow-up, to further our understanding of the landscape of driver lesions in MM and how this can be used to improve prognostication and disease classification. Methods: We used a custom-designed SureSelect pulldown strategy (Agilent Biotechnologies) to target 246 genes implicated in MM or cancer in general; 2538 single nucleotide polymorphisms; the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus. We sequenced unmatched DNA from CD138-purified plasma cells from 418 patients with a median follow-up of 5.4 years using Illumina Hiseq2000 machines. We applied algorithms developed in-house to detect driver genomic events, filtering out potential artifacts and germline variants. We then ranked each mutation on its likelihood of being oncogenic. Results: We identified 197 driver events including gene mutations, aneuploi- dies and IGH translocations (IGH-Tx), median of 6 per patient. Gene mutations where found in >99% of patients. At least one oncogenic mutation of a known driver gene previously identified (KRAS, NRAS, TP53, FAM46C, BRAF, DIS3, TRAF3, SP140, IRF4) was found in 64%, with a long tail of infrequently mutated genes with uncertain significance. Karyotypic class was assigned in 80% of patients, with 9% of hyperdiploid cases also showing an IGH-Tx (mostly t(4;14)). IGH-Tx and aneuploidies dominated the MM genomic landscape, KRAS and NRAS being the only point mutations present in the 15 most frequent driver events. Multivariate analysis by sparse Cox regression highlighted only four driver events with significant prognostic impact for both progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS): t(4;14) (HR 1.88, CI 1.25-1.84), amp(1q) (HR2.63, CI 1.92-3.59), del(17p) (HR2.55, CI 1.66-3.92), and rare mutations of ATP13A4 (HR 0.08, CI 0.01-0.65, mutated in 1.4% of patients). We found a significantly worse prognosis for increasing numbers of driver lesions in each patient (median OS 8.2 vs 3.5 years for <5 and>8 driver events, respectively). This was only partially explained by instances of additive effect or interactions between variables, which were very informative but not frequent. To better investigate these findings in the context of the genomic landscape of each case, we applied Bayesian clustering algorithms. The large number of driver events screened led to the identification of three groups: in the largest one, some hyperdiploid and IGH-Tx cases clustered together, suggesting that sec- ondary mutations and CNAs required for tumor progression are often shared between these two subgroups. We then identified two clusters both character- ized by significantly lower number of mutations, but with opposing features. One was enriched for IGH-Tx, had the highest number of CNAs overall, showed higher prevalence of amp(1q), del(13), del(17p), TP53 mutations, and had a shorter median OS of 5.3 years. The other was mostly composed of hyper- diploid cases and showed fewest CNAs and mutations, with a good prognosis (median OS not reached). Summary/Conclusions: We report on the first attempt towards the use of extended tumor genotype for a genomic classification of MM using innovative clustering algorithms. Despite the heterogeneity of the disease, we could iden- tify disease subgroups with a distinct spectrum and number of driver events carrying different prognosis, supporting the introduction of genomics in the clin- ical approach to MM.
|Titolo:||Analysis of the genomic lanscape of multiple myeloma highlights novel candidate prognostic markers and disease subgroups|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/15 - Malattie del Sangue|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|