At diagnosis, Multiple Myeloma (MM) is traditionally classified into two clinical and prognostic subgroups groups on the basis of initiating cytogenetic abnormalities: IGH translocations and hyperdiploidy. Currently, these events are clinically ascertained by Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH). In recent years, comprehensive genome profiling studies have shown that MM pathogenesis is defined by a spectrum of acquired somatic lesions, many of which are biologically and clinically relevant. To this effect, targeted gene sequencing approaches are becoming routine in the upfront diagnostic settings. Here we present myTYPE, a MM-specific targeted next generation sequencing panel to identify germline and somatic substitutions, indels, Copy Number Aberrations (CNA) and IGH translocations. Methods A multiplex bait panel was designed to capture the exons of 120 genes implicated in MM pathogenesis, entire IGH locus as well as genome wide representation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (1 in 3Mb) to enable detection of arm level copy number events and recurrent focal events. These 120 genes were selected on the basis of 1) frequently mutated and driver genes in MM 2) genes in important signaling pathways, e.g the NFKB pathway 3) treatment targets and candidate genes for drug resistance, e.g. cereblon.To validate the efficacy of the assay, 16 constitutional bone marrow samples and 18 tumor samples were sequenced using myTYPE. For validation, 6/18 tumor/normal pairs sequenced using myTYPE were subject to WGS and remaining 12/18 tumor samples were subject to FISH. After sequencing, we obtained an overall median target coverage of 815x. Results After alignment, substitutions and indels were called using Caveman, Pindel and Strelka. CNAs were identified using Facets and IGH translocations were identified using Delly along with a modified version of BRASS. Below is a description of the genomic abnormalities captured by the myTYPE assay. SNVs and Indels For the 6 tumor/normal pairs sequenced using myTYPE and WGS, we obtained a total of 21 (median = 3) non-synonymous mutations using myTYPE. When limiting the WGS calls to myTYPE targets, we recovered 20/21 non-synonymous mutations identified by myTYPE. These involved SNVs and indels in key MM related drivers including NRAS, KRAS, FAM46C and TP53 among others. For the mutations identified by both myTYPE and WGS, there was a high correlation between the variant VAFs, R2 = 0.99 and as expected is better in capturing subclonal mutations. IGH rearrangements and Copy Number Aberrations (CNA) Next we compared myTYPE and WGS results for recurrent CNAs in MM. We specifically looked at deletions of 1p, 13p, 16q, 17p and gains of 1q, 11q and found a 100% concordance of these aberrations identified by both assays. The remaining 12 samples sequenced using myTYPE also had orthogonal FISH. myTYPE identified a total of 7 IGH rearrangements, 4 of which are also reported by FISH. Three additional t(11;14) translocations were uniquely identified by myTYPE in cases that remained clinically uncharacterized. FISH was also used to probe deletions in 17q, 13q, 1p and 1q gain. All aberrations identified by FISH were also identified in myType. Additionally, 13q- in four samples and 1p- in one sample were uniquely identified by myTYPE. Conclusion In summary, we present a targeted assay capable of identifying somatic mutations, CNAs and IGH translocations of prognostic and diagnostic relevance in MM. When compared to conventional assays currently used in clinical practice, myTYPE identified at least one disease defining alterations in all samples screened. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity will require larger clinical cohorts. Importantly, myTYPE enables comprehensive profiling, large sample multiplexing and short turn around times which renders it as an optimal assay for utilisation in the upfront clinical setting.

Mytype: A Capture Based Sequencing Approach to Detect Somatic Mutations, Copy Number Changes and IGH Translocations in Multiple Myeloma / V. Yellapantula, M. Hultcrantz, E. H Rustad, H.J. Landau, C. Iacobuzio-Donahue, T. Akhlaghi, I. Amit, G. Ledergor, N. Korde, S. Mailankody, D. Kazandjian, A. Patel, N. Bolli, E. Papaemmanuil, O. Landgren. - In: BLOOD. - ISSN 0006-4971. - 132:Suppl. 1(2018 Nov), p. 5588. ((Intervento presentato al convegno American Society of Hematology tenutosi a San Diego (CA, USA) nel 2018 [10.1182/blood-2018-99-119886].

Mytype: A Capture Based Sequencing Approach to Detect Somatic Mutations, Copy Number Changes and IGH Translocations in Multiple Myeloma

N. Bolli;
2018-11

Abstract

At diagnosis, Multiple Myeloma (MM) is traditionally classified into two clinical and prognostic subgroups groups on the basis of initiating cytogenetic abnormalities: IGH translocations and hyperdiploidy. Currently, these events are clinically ascertained by Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH). In recent years, comprehensive genome profiling studies have shown that MM pathogenesis is defined by a spectrum of acquired somatic lesions, many of which are biologically and clinically relevant. To this effect, targeted gene sequencing approaches are becoming routine in the upfront diagnostic settings. Here we present myTYPE, a MM-specific targeted next generation sequencing panel to identify germline and somatic substitutions, indels, Copy Number Aberrations (CNA) and IGH translocations. Methods A multiplex bait panel was designed to capture the exons of 120 genes implicated in MM pathogenesis, entire IGH locus as well as genome wide representation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (1 in 3Mb) to enable detection of arm level copy number events and recurrent focal events. These 120 genes were selected on the basis of 1) frequently mutated and driver genes in MM 2) genes in important signaling pathways, e.g the NFKB pathway 3) treatment targets and candidate genes for drug resistance, e.g. cereblon.To validate the efficacy of the assay, 16 constitutional bone marrow samples and 18 tumor samples were sequenced using myTYPE. For validation, 6/18 tumor/normal pairs sequenced using myTYPE were subject to WGS and remaining 12/18 tumor samples were subject to FISH. After sequencing, we obtained an overall median target coverage of 815x. Results After alignment, substitutions and indels were called using Caveman, Pindel and Strelka. CNAs were identified using Facets and IGH translocations were identified using Delly along with a modified version of BRASS. Below is a description of the genomic abnormalities captured by the myTYPE assay. SNVs and Indels For the 6 tumor/normal pairs sequenced using myTYPE and WGS, we obtained a total of 21 (median = 3) non-synonymous mutations using myTYPE. When limiting the WGS calls to myTYPE targets, we recovered 20/21 non-synonymous mutations identified by myTYPE. These involved SNVs and indels in key MM related drivers including NRAS, KRAS, FAM46C and TP53 among others. For the mutations identified by both myTYPE and WGS, there was a high correlation between the variant VAFs, R2 = 0.99 and as expected is better in capturing subclonal mutations. IGH rearrangements and Copy Number Aberrations (CNA) Next we compared myTYPE and WGS results for recurrent CNAs in MM. We specifically looked at deletions of 1p, 13p, 16q, 17p and gains of 1q, 11q and found a 100% concordance of these aberrations identified by both assays. The remaining 12 samples sequenced using myTYPE also had orthogonal FISH. myTYPE identified a total of 7 IGH rearrangements, 4 of which are also reported by FISH. Three additional t(11;14) translocations were uniquely identified by myTYPE in cases that remained clinically uncharacterized. FISH was also used to probe deletions in 17q, 13q, 1p and 1q gain. All aberrations identified by FISH were also identified in myType. Additionally, 13q- in four samples and 1p- in one sample were uniquely identified by myTYPE. Conclusion In summary, we present a targeted assay capable of identifying somatic mutations, CNAs and IGH translocations of prognostic and diagnostic relevance in MM. When compared to conventional assays currently used in clinical practice, myTYPE identified at least one disease defining alterations in all samples screened. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity will require larger clinical cohorts. Importantly, myTYPE enables comprehensive profiling, large sample multiplexing and short turn around times which renders it as an optimal assay for utilisation in the upfront clinical setting.
Settore MED/15 - Malattie del Sangue
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/603230
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