BackgroundNevirapine has been used as antiretroviral agent since early 90. Although nevirapine is not currently recommended in initial anti-HIV regimens, its use remains consistent in a certain number of HIV-1-positive subjects. Thus, our aim was to determine clinical and genetic factors involved in the development of severe nevirapine induced liver toxicity.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed all HIV positive patients who were followed at the Infectious Diseases Unit, DIBIC Luigi Sacco, University of Milan from May 2011 to December 2015. All patients treated with nevirapine who underwent a genotyping for the functional variants mapping into ABCB1, CYP2B6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes were included in the analysis. Severe hepatotoxicity was defined as ACTG grade 3-4 AST/ALT increase during the first three months of nevirapine treatment. The causality assessment between NVP exposure and drug-induced liver injury was performed by using the updated Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Methods. Hardy Weinberg equilibrium was tested by (2) test. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed using a backward elimination method.ResultsThree hundred and sixty-two patients were included in the analysis, of which 8 (2.2%) experienced a severe liver toxicity. We observed no differences between patients with and without liver toxicity as regards gender, ethnicity, age and immune-virological status. A higher prevalence of HCV coinfection (75.0% vs 30.2%; p=.0013) and higher baseline AST (58IU/L vs 26IU/L; p=0.041) and ALT (82IU/L vs 27IU/L; p=0.047) median levels were observed in patients with liver toxicity vs those without toxicity. The genotypes CT/TT at ABCB1 rs1045642 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), showed a protective effect for liver toxicity when compared with genotype CC (OR=0.18, 95%CI 0.04-0.76; p=0.020) in univariate analysis. In the multivariate model, HCV coinfection was independently associated with higher risk of developing liver toxicity (aOR=8.00, 95%CI 1.27-50.29; p=0.027), whereas ABCB1 rs1045642 CT/TT genotypes (aOR=0.10, 95%CI 0.02-0.47; p=0.004) was associated with a lower risk.ConclusionsAccording to our findings HCV coinfection and ABCB1 rs1045642 SNP represent independent determinants of severe liver toxicity related to nevirapine. This genetic evaluation could be included as toxicity assessment in HIV-1-positive subjects treated with nevirapine.
Clinical and genetic factors associated with increased risk of severe liver toxicity in a monocentric cohort of HIV positive patients receiving nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy / A. Giacomelli, A. Riva, F.S. Falvella, M.L. Oreni, D. Cattaneo, S. Cheli, G. Renisi, V. Di Cristo, A. Lupo, E. Clementi, S. Rusconi, M. Galli, A.L. Ridolfo. - In: BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES. - ISSN 1471-2334. - 18:1(2018 Nov 12).
|Titolo:||Clinical and genetic factors associated with increased risk of severe liver toxicity in a monocentric cohort of HIV positive patients receiving nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy|
GIACOMELLI, ANDREA (Primo) (Corresponding)
GALLI, MASSIMO (Penultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Nevirapine; Pharmacogenetic; Hepatotoxicity; ABCB1|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/17 - Malattie Infettive|
|Data di pubblicazione:||12-nov-2018|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3462-5|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|