Background.: The presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been linked to many illness, including cryptogenic stroke, transient ischemic attack, migraine, platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome and decompression sickness in scuba divers. Transesophageal echocardiography is the gold standard technique for the visualization of atrial septal anatomy, but it is a secondary level exam, not always available, with additional associated costs and not completely free from procedural risks. Standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has a too low sensitivity for PFO screening.Purpose.: The aim of the study was to assess the role of TTE associated with agitated saline contrast injection (contrast-TTE) as a gatekeeper for the identification of PFO in a large cohort of patients undergoing selection for percutaneous closure.Methods.: A total of 200 patients undergoing a diagnostic work-up for the identification of PFO was imaged by contrast-TTE at rest and after provocative maneuvers (PM: Valsalva in all cases). Contrast TTE was graded from 0 to 4 on the bases of bubbles counting (0: no bubbles; 1: < 10 bubbles; 2: 10-30 bubbles; 3: >30 bubbles; 4: complete LV opacification). PFO closure was performed after a consensual clinical decision by the cardiologist and the neurologist taking into account comprehensive imaging, clinical evaluation and thrombophilia screening. PFO closure was always monitored by intracardiac echocardiography.Results.: At baseline contrast TTE was positive (≥2) in 34 patients (17%) while contrast TTE with PM was positive in 94 cases (47%). 27 out of 200 patients (14%) had an interatrial septal aneurysms. PFO closure was performed in 34 cases (17%). All of these had severe right-to-left shunting (≥3) at contrast TTE and 9 cases had also an interatrial septal aneurysms. The procedure was aborted in only 1 patient due to a complex defect anatomy.Conclusion.: Contrast TTE with PM may be not only considered an accurate tool for the detection of PFO but may be also inserted in the diagnostic work- up as a primary gatekeeper for percutaneous closure. Severe shunting at contrast TTE influences final decision making in a large cohort of cases undergoing screening for PFO closure.
|Titolo:||Contrast transthoracic echocardiography as a gatekeeper for patent foramen ovale closure|
|Parole Chiave:||Adult; Cardiac Surgical Procedures; Cohort Studies; Echocardiography; Female; Foramen Ovale, Patent; Humans; Male; Mass Screening; Middle Aged; Patient Selection; Prognosis; Sensitivity and Specificity; Young Adult; Contrast Media; Radiographic Image Enhancement; Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging; Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/11 - Malattie dell'Apparato Cardiovascolare|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|