Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane vesicles released by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells; they not only serve physiological functions, such as disposal of cellular components, but also play pathophysiologic roles in inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Common molecular mechanisms for EV biogenesis are evident in different cell biological contexts across eukaryotic phyla, and inhibition of this biogenesis may provide an avenue for therapeutic research. The involvement of sphingolipids (SLs) and their enzymes on EV biogenesis and release has not received much attention in current research. Here, we review how SLs participate in EV biogenesis by shaping membrane curvature and how they contribute to EV action in target cells. First, we describe how acid and neutral SMases, by generating the constitutive SL, ceramide, facilitate biogenesis of EVs at the plasma membrane and inside the endocytic compartment. We then discuss the involvement of other SLs, such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and galactosyl-sphingosine, in EV formation and cargo sorting. Last, we look ahead at some biological effects of EVs mediated by changes in SL levels in recipient cells.
|Titolo:||Role of sphingolipids in the biogenesis and biological activity of extracellular vesicles|
GIUSSANI, PAOLA CARLA (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||exosomes; ectosomes; microvesicles; ceramide; sphingosine-1-phosphate; psychosine; sphingomyelinase; endocannabinoids|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||ago-2018|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1194/jlr.R083915|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|