The costs associated to the length of links impose unavoidable constraints to the growth of natural and artificial transport networks. When future network developments cannot be predicted, the costs of building and maintaining connections cannot be minimized simultaneously, requiring competing optimization mechanisms. Here, we study a one-parameter nonequilibrium model driven by an optimization functional, defined as the convex combination of building cost and maintenance cost. By varying the coefficient of the combination, the model interpolates between global and local length minimization, i.e., between minimum spanning trees and a local version known as dynamical minimum spanning trees. We show that cost balance within this ensemble of dynamical networks is a sufficient ingredient for the emergence of tradeoffs between the network's total length and transport efficiency, and of optimal strategies of construction. At the transition between two qualitatively different regimes, the dynamics builds up power-law distributed waiting times between global rearrangements, indicating a point of nonoptimality. Finally, we use our model as a framework to analyze empirical ant trail networks, showing its relevance as a null model for cost-constrained network formation.
|Titolo:||Balancing building and maintenance costs in growing transport networks|
|Parole Chiave:||Statistical and Nonlinear Physics; Statistics and Probability; Condensed Matter Physics|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore FIS/02 - Fisica Teorica, Modelli e Metodi Matematici|
Settore FIS/07 - Fisica Applicata(Beni Culturali, Ambientali, Biol.e Medicin)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1103/PhysRevE.96.032316|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|