The main target of extracorporeal support is to achieve viable gas exchange, while minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury, achieved through a decreased mechanical ventilation load on the natural lung. However, during veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), mechanical ventilation is still necessary in order to prevent lung collapse and/or if extracorporeal blood flow is not sufficient to guarantee adequate gas exchange. In this review, we will summarize the physiology of extracorporeal support and the rationale for continuing mechanical ventilation in this context. Furthermore, we will review the current clinical practice among ECMO centers and their suggestions regarding mechanical ventilator settings. While optimal ventilatory settings are still a matter of debate, the use of a strategy combining low tidal volume and limited inspiratory pressures is accepted worldwide. On the contrary, the choice of applied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) varies between the total rest strategy and open lung strategy. Finally, the use of assisted or spontaneous ventilation will be discussed.
|Titolo:||Ventilation during extracorporeal support : Why and how|
|Parole Chiave:||extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; mechanical ventilation; positive end expiratory pressure; respiratory failure; ventilator-induced lung injury; internal medicine; emergency medicine; emergency nursing; critical care and intensive care medicine|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||feb-2018|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||2017|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s00063-017-0384-8|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|