During the last decade some studies have shown that the area under the curve (AUC)/MIC ratio is the pharmacodynamic index that best predicts the efficacies of quinolones, while other studies suggest that the predictive value of the peak concentration/MIC (peak/MIC) ratio is superior to the AUC/MIC ratio in explaining clinical and microbiological outcomes. In classical fractionated dose-response studies with animals, it is difficult to differentiate between the AUC/MIC ratio and the peak/MIC ratio because of colinearity. Three different levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin dosing regimens were studied in a neutropenic mouse pneumonia model. The different regimens were used with the aim of increasing the AUC/MIC ratio without changing the peak/MIC ratio and vice versa. The first regimen (RC) consisted of daily doses of 5 up to 160 mg/kg of body weight divided into one, two, or four doses. In the second regimen (R0), mice were given 1.25 mg/kg every hour from 1 to 23 h, while the dose given at 0 h was 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg. In the third regimen (R11), mice also received 1.25 mg/kg every hour from 0 to 23 h; but in addition, they also received 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg at 11 h. The level of protein binding was also evaluated. The results indicate that the unbound fraction (f(u)) was concentration dependent for both levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin and ranged from approximately 0.67 to 0.88 for both drugs between concentrations of 0.5 and 80 mg/liter. The relationships between the AUC/MIC ratio and the number of CFU were slightly better than those between the peak/MIC ratio and the number of CFU. There was no clear relationship between the amount of time that the concentration remained above the MIC and effect (R(2) < 0.1). For both drugs, the peak/MIC ratio that resulted in a 50% effective concentration was lower for the R0 and R11 dosing regimens, indicating the importance of the AUC/MIC ratio. The same was true for the static doses. Survival studies showed that for mice treated with the low doses the rate of survival was comparable to that for the controls, but with the higher doses the rate of survival was better for mice receiving the R0 regimen. We conclude that for quinolones the AUC/MIC ratio best correlates with efficacy against pneumococci and that the effect of the peak/MIC ratio found in some studies could be partly explained by concentration-dependent protein binding.
|Titolo:||Pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in a murine pneumonia model : peak concentration/MIC versus area under the curve/MIC ratios|
|Autori interni:||SCAGLIONE, FRANCESCO (Primo)|
MATTINA, ROBERTO (Penultimo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/07 - Microbiologia e Microbiologia Clinica|
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
|Data di pubblicazione:||set-2003|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1128/AAC.47.9.2749-2755.2003|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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