The prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a geographic area are largely influenced by live animal trade and management practices. Despite control and eradication programs currently underway in several European countries, the risk of BVDV spread within and among countries is still present. BVDV-1 is the predominant type circulating in European cattle population. In this study, a phylogeographic analysis was applied to the BVDV-1 highest prevalent subtypes in Italy to reconstruct the origin and spatial-temporal distribution and to trace main viral flows between different locations to highlight priority areas for BVDV control. A comprehensive dataset of BVDV-1b (n = 173) and 1e (n = 172) 5' UTR sequences was analysed, including both novel and published sequences from Italy and from European countries bordering and/or with commercial cattle flows with Italy. A common phylogeographic pattern was observed for BVDV-1b and 1e subtypes: interspersion from multiple Italian areas and European countries was widespread until the end of the last century, whereas significant local clusters were observed starting from 2000. These findings support a continuous viral flow among different areas over long time scales with no evidence of significant geographical structure, while local transmission networks are limited to more recent years. Northern Italy has been confirmed as the area of origin of the main clades of both BVDV subtypes at national level, acting both as a crucial area for introduction and a maintenance source for other areas. Piedmont, Central and Southern Italian regions contributed to limited geographical distribution and local BVDV-1b and 1e persistence. On the whole, priority control measures for BVDV-1b and 1e in Italy should be focused on: i) implementation of BVDV systematic control in all Northern Italian regions to break the viral flow from larger to smaller animal populations; and ii) breaking the dynamics of infections in regions with self-maintenance of BVDV by voluntary control programs.
Highlighting priority areas for bovine viral diarrhea control in Italy : a phylogeographic approach / E. Ebranati, S. Lauzi, F.M. Cerutti, C. Caruso, L. Masoero, A. Moreno, G.M. De Mia, S. Peletto, G. Zehender, C. Luzzago. - In: INFECTION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION. - ISSN 1567-1348. - 58(2018 Mar), pp. 258-268.
|Titolo:||Highlighting priority areas for bovine viral diarrhea control in Italy : a phylogeographic approach|
LUZZAGO, CAMILLA (Corresponding)
|Parole Chiave:||bovine viral diarrhea virus; Cattle; epidemiology; Italy; Pestivirus; phylogeography|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore VET/05 - Malattie Infettive degli Animali Domestici|
Settore MED/42 - Igiene Generale e Applicata
|Data di pubblicazione:||mar-2018|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||9-gen-2018|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2018.01.006|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|