Ferredoxin: NADP+ reductase (FNR) is an FAD-containing enzyme best known for catalysing the transfer of electrons from ferredoxin (Fd) to NADP+ to make NADPH during photosynthesis. It is also the prototype for a broad enzyme superfamily, including the NADPH oxidases (NOXs) that all catalyse similar FAD-enabled electron transfers between NAD(P)H and one-electron carriers. Here, we define further mechanistic details of the NAD(P)H ⇌ FAD hydride-transfer step of the reaction based on spectroscopic studies and high-resolution (~ 1.5 Å) crystallographic views of the nicotinamide-flavin interaction in crystals of corn root FNR Tyr316Ser and Tyr316Ala variants soaked with either nicotinamide, NADP+ , or NADPH. The spectra obtained from FNR crystal complexes match those seen in solution and the complexes reveal active site packing interactions and patterns of covalent distortion of the FAD that imply significant active site compression that would favour catalysis. Furthermore, anisotropic B-factors show that the mobility of the C4 atom of the nicotinamide in the FNR:NADP+ complex has a directionality matching that expected for boat-like excursions of the nicotinamide ring thought to enhance hydride transfer. Arguments are made for the relevance of this binding mode to catalysis, and specific consideration is given to how the results extrapolate to provide insight to structure-function relations for the membrane-bound NOX enzymes for which little structural information has been available.

High-resolution studies of hydride transfer in the ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase superfamily / K..M. Kean, R..A. Carpenter, V.E. Pandini, G. Zanetti, A..R. Hall, R. Faber, A. Aliverti, P..A. Karplus. - In: THE FEBS JOURNAL. - ISSN 1742-4658. - 284:19(2017 Oct), pp. 3302-3319. [10.1111/febs.14190]

High-resolution studies of hydride transfer in the ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase superfamily

V.E. Pandini;G. Zanetti;A. Aliverti
;
2017

Abstract

Ferredoxin: NADP+ reductase (FNR) is an FAD-containing enzyme best known for catalysing the transfer of electrons from ferredoxin (Fd) to NADP+ to make NADPH during photosynthesis. It is also the prototype for a broad enzyme superfamily, including the NADPH oxidases (NOXs) that all catalyse similar FAD-enabled electron transfers between NAD(P)H and one-electron carriers. Here, we define further mechanistic details of the NAD(P)H ⇌ FAD hydride-transfer step of the reaction based on spectroscopic studies and high-resolution (~ 1.5 Å) crystallographic views of the nicotinamide-flavin interaction in crystals of corn root FNR Tyr316Ser and Tyr316Ala variants soaked with either nicotinamide, NADP+ , or NADPH. The spectra obtained from FNR crystal complexes match those seen in solution and the complexes reveal active site packing interactions and patterns of covalent distortion of the FAD that imply significant active site compression that would favour catalysis. Furthermore, anisotropic B-factors show that the mobility of the C4 atom of the nicotinamide in the FNR:NADP+ complex has a directionality matching that expected for boat-like excursions of the nicotinamide ring thought to enhance hydride transfer. Arguments are made for the relevance of this binding mode to catalysis, and specific consideration is given to how the results extrapolate to provide insight to structure-function relations for the membrane-bound NOX enzymes for which little structural information has been available.
NADPH oxidase; enzyme mechanism; flavoenzyme; hydride transfer; protein crystallography
Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica
Settore BIO/11 - Biologia Molecolare
ott-2017
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/525753
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