Fgfr4 has been shown to be important for appropriate muscle development in chick limb buds; however, Fgfr4 null mice show no phenotype. Here, we show that staged induction of muscle regeneration in Fgfr4 null mice becomes highly abnormal at the time point when Fgfr4 is normally expressed. By 7 days of regeneration, differentiation of myotubes became poorly coordinated and delayed by both histology and embryonic myosin heavy chain staining. By 14 days much of the muscle was replaced by fat and calcifications. To begin to dissect the molecular pathways involving Fgfr4, we queried the promoter sequences for transcriptional factor binding sites and tested candidate regulators in a 27-time point regeneration series. The Fgfr4 promoter region contained a Tead protein binding site (M-CAT 5'-CATTCCT-3'), and Tead2 showed induction during regeneration commensurate with Fgfr4 regulation. Co-transfection of Tead2 and Fgfr4 promoter reporter constructs into C2C12 myotubes showed Tead2 to activate Fgfr4, and mutation of the M-CAT motif in the Fgfr4 promoter abolished these effects. Immunostaining for Tead2 showed timed expression in myotube nuclei consistent with the mRNA data. Query of the expression timing and genomic sequences of Tead2 suggested direct regulation by MyoD, and consistent with this, MyoD directly bound to two strong E-boxes in the first intron of Tead2 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, co-transfection of MyoD and Tead2 intron reporter constructs into 10T1/2 cells activated reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. This activation was greatly reduced when the two E-boxes were mutated. Our data suggest a novel MyoD-Tead2-Fgfr4 pathway important for effective muscle regeneration.
|Titolo:||Fgfr4 is required for effective muscle regeneration in vivo : delineation of a MyoD-Tead2-Fgfr4 transcriptional pathway|
CARETTI, GIUSEPPINA (Secondo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/18 - Genetica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2006|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1074/jbc.M507440200|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|