Accurate staging of rectal and anal carcinoma is crucial for planning surgery and indicating adjuvant therapy. Although, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are very sensitive in detecting metastatic disease, the local staging of rectal cancer with these techniques has been disappointing. Endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) and anal endosonography (AE) remain the most accurate methods for staging rectal and anal cancer. Anal endosonography is also of value in evaluating perianal sepsis: it can assist the surgeon in planning the surgical strategy by delineating the anatomy of fistula tracts, and can aid in puncturing abscesses in the operating room. Continued research and development has made the instrumentation for ERUS and AE more accurate and user-friendly. New techniques that have contributed significantly to the evolution of ERUS include three-dimensional ERUS, high-frequency miniprobes, transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy techniques and hydrogen peroxide-enhanced endosonography. Further improvements can be expected from contrast enhancement with microbubbles and colour Doppler imaging. In this new millennium, new developments in ERUS and anal endosonography, such as tri-dimensional ERUS and anal endosonography and radial electronic probing, widen the role of ERUS in the staging of rectal and anal carcinoma, as well as for perianal inflammatory conditions.

Anorectal ultrasound for neoplastic and inflammatory lesions / M. Giovannini, S. Ardizzone. - In: BAILLIERE'S BEST PRACTICE & RESEARCH. CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY. - ISSN 1521-6918. - 20:1(2006), pp. 113-135.

Anorectal ultrasound for neoplastic and inflammatory lesions

S. Ardizzone
2006

Abstract

Accurate staging of rectal and anal carcinoma is crucial for planning surgery and indicating adjuvant therapy. Although, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are very sensitive in detecting metastatic disease, the local staging of rectal cancer with these techniques has been disappointing. Endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) and anal endosonography (AE) remain the most accurate methods for staging rectal and anal cancer. Anal endosonography is also of value in evaluating perianal sepsis: it can assist the surgeon in planning the surgical strategy by delineating the anatomy of fistula tracts, and can aid in puncturing abscesses in the operating room. Continued research and development has made the instrumentation for ERUS and AE more accurate and user-friendly. New techniques that have contributed significantly to the evolution of ERUS include three-dimensional ERUS, high-frequency miniprobes, transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy techniques and hydrogen peroxide-enhanced endosonography. Further improvements can be expected from contrast enhancement with microbubbles and colour Doppler imaging. In this new millennium, new developments in ERUS and anal endosonography, such as tri-dimensional ERUS and anal endosonography and radial electronic probing, widen the role of ERUS in the staging of rectal and anal carcinoma, as well as for perianal inflammatory conditions.
anal malignancy; anal sepsis; anorectal endosonography; miniprobes, three-dimensional ano-endorectal ultrasound; rectal cancer; recurrence of rectal cancer; endosonography; humans; imaging, three-dimensional; neoplasm staging; rectal neoplasms; sensitivity and specificity; gastroenterology
Settore MED/12 - Gastroenterologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/515829
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