Illicit drugs have been recently identified as a serious environmental problem because of the growing evidence regarding their occurrence in aquatic environment and potential toxicity towards non-target organisms. Among them, cocaine (COC) and its main metabolites, namely benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), are commonly measured in freshwaters worldwide at levels that might cause diverse sub-lethal effects to aquatic organisms. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the potential adverse effects induced by the exposure to environmental concentrations (0.04, 0.4, 4 and 40 nM) of COC, BE, and EME on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos at 96 h post fertilization. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the Trypan Blue exclusion method, while primary and fixed genetic damages were evaluated by the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, and the DNA diffusion assay together with the Micronucleus test, respectively. The involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of action (MoA) of all tested drugs was assessed by measuring the activity of defense enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST) and the expression of their encoding genes. Exposure to COC and both metabolites significantly reduced cell viability, increased DNA fragmentation and promoted the onset of apoptotic cells and micronuclei in zebrafish embryos. Results from oxidative stress-related endpoints and gene expression suggested that the observed genotoxicity may be caused by an overproduction of free radicals that imbalanced the oxidative status of embryos. The integration of biomarker responses into a synthetic index showed that at each tested concentration, BE and EME had a similar toxicity and were both more toxic than COC. Our data confirmed the potential toxicity of environmental concentrations of COC, BE, and EME, suggesting the need of further in-depth studies to shed light on their MoA and long-term toxicity towards non-target aquatic species.
Environmental concentrations of cocaine and its main metabolites modulated antioxidant response and caused cyto-genotoxic effects in zebrafish embryo cells / M. Parolini, A. Ghilardi, C. Della Torre, S. Magni, L. Prosperi, M. Calvagno, L. Del Giacco, A. Binelli. - In: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. - ISSN 0269-7491. - 226(2017 Jul), pp. 504-514.
|Titolo:||Environmental concentrations of cocaine and its main metabolites modulated antioxidant response and caused cyto-genotoxic effects in zebrafish embryo cells|
|Parole Chiave:||illicit drugs; cocaine; benzoylecgonine; ecgonine methyl ester; genotoxicity; oxidative stress; zebrafish embryos|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/07 - Ecologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||lug-2017|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||24-apr-2017|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.046|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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