The aim of this study was to investigate the quasispecies heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the plasma, cryoprecipitate, and peripheral lymphocytes of chronically infected HCV patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC). We studied 360 clones from 10 HCV-positive patients with MC and 8 age-, gender- and HCV genotype-matched subjects with chronic HCV infection but without MC. A partial nucleotide sequence encompassing the E1/E2 region, including hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was amplified and cloned from plasma, cryoprecipitates, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and the genetic diversity and complexity and synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates were determined. Heterogeneous selection pressure at codon sites was evaluated. Compartmentalization was estimated by phylogenetic and phenetic (Mantel's test) approaches. The patients with MC had 3.3 times lower nonsynonymous substitution rates (1.7 versus 5.7 substitutions/100 sites). Among the subjects with HCV genotype 1, the MC patients had significantly less complexity than the controls, whereas the diversity and complexity were similar in the genotype 2 patients and controls. Site-specific selection analysis confirmed the low frequency of MC patients showing positive selection. There was a significant correlation between positive selection and the infecting HCV genotype. The quasispecies were less heterogeneous in PBMC than in plasma. Significant compartmentalization of HCV quasispecies was observed in the PBMC of four of nine subjects (three with MC) and seven of nine cryoprecipitates. In one subject with MC, we detected a 5-amino-acid insertion at codons 385 to 389 of HVR1. Our results suggest reduced quasispecies heterogeneity in MC patients that is related to a low selection pressure which is probably due to an impaired immune response, the HCV genotype, and/or the duration of the infection. The frequent HCV quasispecies compartmentalization in patients' PBMC suggests a possible pathogenetic significance. Copyright (copyright) 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Compartmentalization of hepatitis C virus quasispecies in blood mononuclear cells of patients with mixed cryoglobulinemic syndrome / G. Zehender, C. De Maddalena, F. Bernini, E. Ebranati, G. Monti, P. Pioltelli, M. Galli. - In: JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY. - ISSN 0022-538X. - 79:14(2005), pp. 9145-9156.
|Titolo:||Compartmentalization of hepatitis C virus quasispecies in blood mononuclear cells of patients with mixed cryoglobulinemic syndrome|
ZEHENDER, GIANGUGLIELMO (Primo)
GALLI, MASSIMO (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Hepatitis C virus; Mantel test; adult; aged; article; cell compartmentalization; clinical article; controlled study; cryoglobulinemia; cryoprecipitate; disease duration; female; gene amplification; gene insertion; genetic selection; genetic variability; genotype; hepatitis C; human cell; human; hypervariable region 1; immune deficiency; male; molecular cloning; morphology; nonhuman; nucleic acid base substitution; nucleotide sequence; peripheral blood mononuclear cell; phenetics; phylogeny; plasma; priority journal; quasispecies; selection pressure; species diversity; species; statistical analysis; taxonomy; virus pathogenesis; glycoprotein E1; glycoprotein e2; unclassified drug; virus glycoprotein|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/17 - Malattie Infettive|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2005|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.79.14.9145-9156.2005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|