In the presence of different environmental cues that are able to trigger specific responses, a given genotype has the ability to originate a variety of different phenotypes. This property is defined as plasticity and allows cell fate definition and tissue specialization. Fundamental epigenetic mechanisms drive these modifications in gene expression and include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and microRNAs. Understanding these mechanisms can provide powerful tools to switch cell phenotype and implement cell therapy. Environmentally influenced epigenetic changes have also been associated to many diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, with patients that do not respond, or only poorly respond, to conventional therapy. It is clear that disorders based on an individual’s personal genomic/epigenomic profile can rarely be successfully treated with standard therapies due to genetic heterogeneity and epigenetic alterations and a personalized medicine approach is far more appropriate to manage these patients. We here discuss the recent advances in small molecule approaches for personalized medicine, drug targeting, and generation of new cells for medical application. We also provide prospective views of the possibility to directly convert one cell type into another, in a safe and robust way, for cell-based clinical trials and regenerative medicine.

The quest for an effective and safe personalized cell therapy using epigenetic tools / T. Brevini, G. Pennarossa, E.F.M. Manzoni, C.E. Gandolfi, A. Zenobi, F. Gandolfi. - In: CLINICAL EPIGENETICS. - ISSN 1868-7083. - 8(2016), pp. 119.1-119.9. [10.1186/s13148-016-0283-5]

The quest for an effective and safe personalized cell therapy using epigenetic tools

T. Brevini
;
G. Pennarossa
Secondo
;
E.F.M. Manzoni;A. Zenobi
Penultimo
;
F. Gandolfi
2016

Abstract

In the presence of different environmental cues that are able to trigger specific responses, a given genotype has the ability to originate a variety of different phenotypes. This property is defined as plasticity and allows cell fate definition and tissue specialization. Fundamental epigenetic mechanisms drive these modifications in gene expression and include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and microRNAs. Understanding these mechanisms can provide powerful tools to switch cell phenotype and implement cell therapy. Environmentally influenced epigenetic changes have also been associated to many diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, with patients that do not respond, or only poorly respond, to conventional therapy. It is clear that disorders based on an individual’s personal genomic/epigenomic profile can rarely be successfully treated with standard therapies due to genetic heterogeneity and epigenetic alterations and a personalized medicine approach is far more appropriate to manage these patients. We here discuss the recent advances in small molecule approaches for personalized medicine, drug targeting, and generation of new cells for medical application. We also provide prospective views of the possibility to directly convert one cell type into another, in a safe and robust way, for cell-based clinical trials and regenerative medicine.
Epigenetic conversion; Epigenetics; iPSCs; Molecular medicine; Personalized medicine; Regenerative medicine; Small molecules
Settore VET/01 - Anatomia degli Animali Domestici
2016
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/472706
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