The effect of on-line ultrasound application by a special static mixer die which promotes extensional flow simultaneously during the single screw extrusion process was thoroughly studied. The proportion of aluminum trihydroxide (ATH) used as flame retardant on high density polyethylene (HDPE) was optimized. The morphological, thermal, flammability, combustion, mechanical and rheological properties of the materials were investigated. The morphological study pointed out that this process is able to strongly reduce the size of ATH particles and improve their dispersion and distribution within the polymer matrix. The addition of zinc borate (ZB) at low concentration (namely 3 phr) showed its well-known synergistic effect in the thermal, oxygen index and fire combustion behavior. According to the UL94 standard, the rating for all materials tested changed from HB to V2, with respect to materials prepared without ultrasound; furthermore a rating V0 was achieved only with the addition of 2 phr organo-clay. Rheological results under simple and small amplitude oscillatory shear flow confirmed the enhanced particle dispersion and finer particle morphology evidenced by larger values of the moduli and by deviations from the semicircular shape observed in the Cole-Cole diagram. Mechanical properties such as Izod impact resistance, tensile strength, strain at break and tenacity were also improved by the on-line ultrasound process. In this work, the appropriate on-line ultrasound extrusion conditions to use the lowest ATH content (30 phr or 21.5 in wt%) were found, rendering HDPE optimized flame retardant materials with improved processability and mechanical properties.
|Titolo:||Flame retardant high density polyethylene optimized by on-line ultrasound extrusion|
ALONGI, JENNY (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||ATH; Flame retardant properties; HDPE; Ultrasound extrusion; Polymers and Plastics; Materials Chemistry|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore CHIM/04 - Chimica Industriale|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2013.09.001|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|