Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Tat, a nuclear transcription factor, has been shown to function extracellularly, implying that some Tat molecules escape nuclear import and are secreted. This raises the question of what regulates, in HIV-1-infected cells, the nuclear targeting of the polypeptide. Here we show that cytosolic components activated by Ca2+ ions are required to reveal the karyophilic properties of Tat: in vitro translated Tat molecules do not associate with isolated nuclei unless preincubated with Ca2+. Moreover, Ca2+ ions induce karyophilicity of chemically synthesized Tat molecules only upon addition of cytosolic extracts. The Ca2+-induced karyophilicity is prevented by inhibitors of either tyrosine kinases (herbimycin A and genistein) or tyrosine phosphatases (vanadate), suggesting the involvement of Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events. In line with these observations, the transcriptional activity of Tat is inhibited by treatment with either vanadate or genistein. The same occurs with Tat mutants lacking either one or both the two tyrosine residues (positions 26 and 47). Hence, Ca2+-dependent tyrosine kinase(s) and phosphatase(s) act on accessory cellular protein(s), which in turn are responsible of Tat karyophilicity.
|Titolo:||The association of HIV-1 Tat with nuclei is regulated by Ca2+ ions and cytosolic factors|
|Parole Chiave:||human-immunodeficiency-virus; transcription factor; beta-galactosidase; trans-activator; protein; phosphorylation; cells; import; kinase; growth|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/11 - Biologia Molecolare|
|Data di pubblicazione:||25-apr-1997|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.272.17.11256|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|