Epidemiological studies on coffee, alcohol and bladder cancer risk published up to 2007 were reviewed. Coffee drinkers have a moderately higher relative risk of bladder cancer compared to non-drinkers. The association may partly be due to residual confounding by smoking or dietary factors, but the interpretation remains open to discussion, although the absence of dose and duration-risk relations weighs against the presence of a causal association. Most studies of alcohol and bladder cancer found no association, with some studies finding a direct and other an inverse one. This again may be due to differential confounding effect of tobacco smoking - the major risk factor for bladder cancer - in various populations. Thus, epidemiological findings on the relation between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer exclude any meaningful association.
|Titolo:||Coffee and alcohol consumption and bladder cancer|
|Parole Chiave:||Alcohol drinking; Coffee; Epidemiology; Review; Risk factors; Urinary bladder neoplasms|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/01 - Statistica Medica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||set-2008|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1080/03008880802237090|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|