Osmolality is the primary determinant of water movement across the intact blood–brain barrier (BBB), and we can predict that reducing serum osmolality would increase cerebral oedema and intracranial pressure. Brain injury affects the integrity of the BBB to varying degrees. With a complete breakdown of the BBB, there will be no osmotic/oncotic gradient, and water accumulates (brain oedema) consequentially to the pathological process. In regions with very moderate BBB injury, the oncotic gradient may be effective. Finally, osmotherapy is effective in brain areas with normal BBB; hypertonic solutions (mannitol, hypertonic saline) dehydrate normal brain tissue, with a decrease in cerebral volume and intracranial pressure. In patients with brain pathology, volume depletion and/or hypotension greatly increase morbidity and mortality. In addition to management of intravascular volume, fluid therapy must often be modified for water and electrolyte (mainly sodium) disturbances. These are common in patients with neurological disease and need to be adequately treated.
|Titolo:||Volume and electrolyte management|
|Autori interni:||TOMMASINO, CONCEZIONE (Primo)|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2007|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|