The hypothesis that anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) may concur in generating the directional preference experienced during limb coupled movements was tested by measuring the electromyographic and mechanic postural actions elicited when moving: (1) one single arm/hand and, (2) both limbs, iso- or antidirectionally coupled. During fast adduction of the right arm in the horizontal plane (prime mover, pectoralis Major, rPM) APAs were recorded in the contralateral lPM as well as in the right ischiocruralis (rIC) muscle. This last action was associated to a transient increase of Tz (torque around body vertical axis) in the direction opposite to arm rotation. Both the APAs in rIC and the Tz changes nearly doubled in size when arms were coupled isodirectionally (adduction of one arm and abduction on the other) while they vanished when both arms were simultaneously adducted (antidirectional coupling). Conformably, during rhythmic arm oscillations APAs and Tz were cyclically modulated when movements were isodirectional, the modulation amplitude being strongly enhanced by increasing the movement frequency. When oscillations were antidirectional neither APAs nor Tz changes were observed, even if frequency was incremented. The postural actions linked to unidirectional or cyclic movements of the hand were affected by either coupling or frequency in the same way as arm movements, albeit much smaller in size. In conclusion, during antidirectional movements APAs in prime movers are synergic with voluntary activation and no postural engagement is requested to leg muscles. Conversely, during isodirectional movements, APAs in prime movers conflict with the voluntary commands and a strong, frequency-dependent, postural effort is required to leg muscles. How these factors may co-operate in determining the preference for antidirectional coupling is discussed.
|Titolo:||Postural adjustments in arm and leg muscles associated with isodirectional and antidirectional coupling of upper limb movements in the horizontal plane|
|Autori interni:||BALDISSERA, FAUSTO GIACOMO (Corresponding)|
ROTA, VIVIANA (Secondo)
ESPOSTI, ROBERTO PAOLO (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||APAs; movements coupling; posture; voluntary movement; upper limbs|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia|
|Data di pubblicazione:||set-2008|
|Data ahead of print:||lug-2008|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s00221-008-1470-1|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|
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