Air pollution has recently been associated with the development of acute decompensated heart failure, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. A pulmonary vasoconstrictor effect of air pollution, combined with its systemic effects, may precipitate decompensated heart failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) under resting and stress conditions but also to determine whether air pollution may potentiate acquired pulmonary hypertension. Eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to ambient air (AA) or dilute DE with a particulate matter of 2.5 µm concentration of 300 µg/m3 for 2 h in a randomized, crossover study design. The effects of DE on PVR, on the coefficient of distensibilty of pulmonary vessels (α), and on right and left ventricular function were evaluated at rest (n 18), during dobutamine stress echocardi-ography (n 10), and during exercise stress echocardiography performed in hypoxia (n 8). Serum endothelin-1 and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were also measured. At rest, exposure to DE did not affect PVR. During dobutamine stress, the slope of the mean pulmonary artery pressure-cardiac output relationship increased from 2.8±0.5 mmHg·min·l-1 in AA to 3.9±0.5 mmHg·min·l-1 in DE (P < 0.05) and the coefficient decreased from 0.96±0.15 to 0.64±0.12%/mmHg (P < 0.01). DE did not further enhance the hypoxiarelated upper shift of the mean pulmonary artery pressure-cardiac output relationship. Exposure to DE did not affect serum endothelin-1 concentration or fractional exhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, acute exposure to DE increased pulmonary vasomotor tone by decreasing the distensibility of pulmonary resistive vessels at high cardiac output.

At high cardiac output, diesel exhaust exposure increases pulmonary vascular resistance and decreases distensibility of pulmonary resistive vessels / A. Wauters, M. Vicenzi, B. De Becker, J. Riga, F. Esmaeilzadeh, V. Faoro, J. Vachiéry, P. Van De Borne, J. Argacha. - In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY. HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY. - ISSN 0363-6135. - 309:12(2015), pp. H2137-H2144. [10.1152/ajpheart.00149.2015]

At high cardiac output, diesel exhaust exposure increases pulmonary vascular resistance and decreases distensibility of pulmonary resistive vessels

M. Vicenzi;
2015

Abstract

Air pollution has recently been associated with the development of acute decompensated heart failure, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. A pulmonary vasoconstrictor effect of air pollution, combined with its systemic effects, may precipitate decompensated heart failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) on pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) under resting and stress conditions but also to determine whether air pollution may potentiate acquired pulmonary hypertension. Eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to ambient air (AA) or dilute DE with a particulate matter of 2.5 µm concentration of 300 µg/m3 for 2 h in a randomized, crossover study design. The effects of DE on PVR, on the coefficient of distensibilty of pulmonary vessels (α), and on right and left ventricular function were evaluated at rest (n 18), during dobutamine stress echocardi-ography (n 10), and during exercise stress echocardiography performed in hypoxia (n 8). Serum endothelin-1 and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were also measured. At rest, exposure to DE did not affect PVR. During dobutamine stress, the slope of the mean pulmonary artery pressure-cardiac output relationship increased from 2.8±0.5 mmHg·min·l-1 in AA to 3.9±0.5 mmHg·min·l-1 in DE (P < 0.05) and the coefficient decreased from 0.96±0.15 to 0.64±0.12%/mmHg (P < 0.01). DE did not further enhance the hypoxiarelated upper shift of the mean pulmonary artery pressure-cardiac output relationship. Exposure to DE did not affect serum endothelin-1 concentration or fractional exhaled nitric oxide. In conclusion, acute exposure to DE increased pulmonary vasomotor tone by decreasing the distensibility of pulmonary resistive vessels at high cardiac output.
Air pollution; Diesel exhaust; Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction; Pulmonary hemodynamics; Pulmonary vascular resistance; Air Pollutants; Anoxia; Cardiac Output, High; Cross-Over Studies; Echocardiography, Stress; Endothelin-1; Humans; Male; Muscle, Smooth, Vascular; Nitric Oxide; Particulate Matter; Pulmonary Circulation; Rest; Vascular Resistance; Vasoconstriction; Vehicle Emissions; Ventricular Function, Left; Young Adult; Physiology; Physiology (medical); Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine; Medicine (all)
Settore MED/11 - Malattie dell'Apparato Cardiovascolare
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/437026
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