A combined experimental and theoretical charge density study of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (1) is presented focusing on electrostatic properties such as atomic charges, molecular electric moments up to the fourth rank and energies of the intermolecular interactions, to gain an insight into the physical nature of the drug-receptor interaction. Electrostatic properties were derived from both the experimental electron density (multipole refinement of X-ray data collected at T=17 K) and the ab initio wavefunction (single molecule and fully periodic calculations at the DFT level). The relevance of SO and SN intramolecular interactions on the activity of 1 is highlighted by using both the crystal and gas-phase geometries and their electrostatic nature is documented by means of QTAIM atomic charges. The derived electrostatic properties are consistent with a nearly spherical electron density distribution, characterised by an intermingling of electropositive and -negative zones rather than by a unique electrophilic region opposed to a nucleophilic area. This makes the first molecular moment scarcely significant and ill-determined, whereas the second moment is large, significant and highly reliable. A comparison between experimental and theoretical components of the third electric moment shows a few discrepancies, whereas the agreement for the fourth electric moment is excellent. The most favourable intermolecular bond is show to be an NHN hydrogen bond with an energy of about 50 kJ mol-1. Key pharmacophoric features responsible for attractive electrostatic interactions include CHX hydrogen bonds. It is shown that methyl and methylene groups, known to be essential for the biological activity of the drug, provide a significant energetic contribution to the total binding energy. Dispersive interactions are important at the thiophene and at both the phenyl fragments. The experimental estimates of the electrostatic contribution to the intermolecular interaction energies of six molecular pairs, obtained by a new model proposed by Spackman, predict the correct relative electrostatic energies with no exceptions.
|Titolo:||Progress in the understanding of drug-receptor interactions. Part 2, experimental and theoretical electrostatic moments and interaction energies of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (C30H30N6O3S)|
|Parole Chiave:||angiotensin II ; charge density distribution ; electric moments ; electrostatic interactions ; molecular recognition|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore CHIM/02 - Chimica Fisica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2007|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1002/chem.200601516|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|