To evaluate the predominant human adenovirus (HAdV) species and types associated with pediatric respiratory infections, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from otherwise healthy children attending an emergency room in Milan, Italy, due to a respiratory tract infection from January 1 to February 28 of two subsequent years, 2013 and 2014. The HAdVs were detected using a respiratory virus panel fast assay (xTAG RVP FAST v2) and with a HAdV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction; their nucleotides were sequenced, and they were tested for positive selection. Among 307 nasopharyngeal samples, 61 (19.9%) tested positive for HAdV. HAdV was the only virus detected in 31/61 (50.8%) cases, whereas it was found in association with one other virus in 25 (41.0%) cases and with two or more viruses in 5 (8.2%) cases. Human Enterovirus/human rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common co-infecting viral agents and were found in 12 (19.7%) and 7 (11.5%) samples, respectively. Overall, the HAdV strain sequences analyzed were highly conserved. In comparison to HAdV-negative children, those infected with HAdV had a reduced frequency of lower respiratory tract involvement (36.1% vs 55.2%; p = 0.007), wheezing (0.0% vs 12.5%; p = 0.004), and hospitalization (27.9% vs 56.1%; p<0.001). Antibiotic therapy and white blood cell counts were more frequently prescribed (91.9% vs 57.1%; p = 0.04) and higher (17,244 ±7,737 vs 9,565 ±3,211 cells/uL; p = 0.04), respectively, in children infected by HAdV-C than among those infected by HAdV-B. On the contrary, those infected by HAdV-B had more frequently lower respiratory tract involvement (57.1%vs 29.7%) but difference did not reach statistical significant (p = 0.21). Children with high viral load were absent from child care attendance for a longer period of time (14.5 ± 7.5 vs 5.5 ± 3.2 days; p = 0.002) and had higher C reactive protein levels (41.3 ± 78.5 vs 5.4 ± 9.6 ug/dL; p = 0.03). This study has shown that HAdV infections are diagnosed more commonly than usually thought and that HAdVs are stable infectious agents that do not frequently cause severe diseases. A trend toward more complex disease in cases due to HAdV species C and in those with higher viral load was demonstrated. However, further studies are needed to clarify factors contributing to disease severity to understand how to develop adequate preventive and therapeutic measures.
Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of respiratory infections due to adenovirus in children living in Milan, Italy, during 2013 and 2014 / S. Esposito, A. Zampiero, S. Bianchini, A. Mori, A. Scala, C. Tagliabue, C.S. Sciarrabba, E. Fossali, A. Piralla, N. Principi. - In: PLOS ONE. - ISSN 1932-6203. - 11:4(2016 Apr), pp. e0152375.1-e0152375.13.
|Titolo:||Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of respiratory infections due to adenovirus in children living in Milan, Italy, during 2013 and 2014|
ESPOSITO, SUSANNA (Primo)
ZAMPIERO, ALBERTO (Secondo)
PRINCIPI, NICOLA (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||agricultural and biological sciences (all); biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology (all); medicine (all)|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||apr-2016|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152375|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|