Background: The cell wall is essential for the yeast to hypha (Y-H) transition that enables Candida albicans to invade human tissues and evade the immune system. The main constituent, beta(1,3)-glucan, is remodeled by glucanosyltransferases of the GH72 family. Phr1p is responsible of glucan remodeling at neutral-alkaline pH and is essential for morphogenesis and virulence. Due to the pH-regulated expression of PHR1, the phr1-delta phenotype is manifested at pH > 6 and its severity increases with the rise in pH. We exploited the pH-conditional nature of a PHR1 null mutant to analyze the impact of glucan remodeling on the hyphal transcriptional program and the role of chitin synthases in the hyphal wall stress (HWS) response. Results: In hyphal growth inducing conditions, phr1-delta germ tubes are defective in elongation, accumulate chitin, and constitutively activate the signaling pathways mediated by the MAP kinases Mkc1p, Cek1p and Hog1p. The transcriptional profiles revealed an increase of transcript levels for genes involved in cell wall formation (CHS2 and CHS8, CRH11, PGA23, orf19.750, RBR1, RBT4, ECM331, PGA6, PGA13), protein N-glycosylation and sorting in the ER (CWH8 and CHS7), signaling (CPP1, SSK2), ion transport (FLC2, YVC1), stress response and metabolism and a reduced expression of adhesins. A transient up-regulation of DNA replication genes associated with entry into S-phase occurred whereas cell-cycle regulating genes (PCL1, PCL2, CCN1, GIN4, DUN1, CDC28) were persistently up-regulated. To test the physiological relevance of altered CHS gene expression, phr1delta chsxdelta (x = 2,3,8) mutant phenotypes were analyzed during the Y-H transition. PHR1 deletion was synthetic lethal with CHS3 loss on solid M199- medium-pH 7.5 and with CHS8 deletion on solid M199-pH 8. On Spider medium, PHR1 was synthetic lethal with CHS3 or CHS8 at pH 8. Conclusions: The absence of Phr1p triggers an adaptive response aimed to reinforce the hyphal cell wall and restore homeostasis. Chs3p is essential in preserving phr1-delta cell integrity during the Y-H transition. Our findings also unveiled an unanticipated essential role of Chs8p during filamentation on solid media. These results highlight the flexibility of fungal cells in maintaining cell wall integrity and contribute to assessments of glucan remodeling as a target for therapy.

Genomic and functional analyses unveil the response to hyphal wall stress in Candida albicans cells lacking beta(1,3)-glucan remodeling / G. Degani, E. Ragni, P. Botias, D. Ravasio, J. Calderon, E. Pianezzola, J.M. Rodriguez Pena, M.A. Vanoni, J. Arroyo, W.A. Fonzi, L. Popolo. - In: BMC GENOMICS. - ISSN 1471-2164. - 17:1(2016 Jun 29), pp. 482.1-482.24. [10.1186/s12864-016-2853-5]

Genomic and functional analyses unveil the response to hyphal wall stress in Candida albicans cells lacking beta(1,3)-glucan remodeling

G. Degani
Primo
;
M.A. Vanoni;L. Popolo
Ultimo
2016

Abstract

Background: The cell wall is essential for the yeast to hypha (Y-H) transition that enables Candida albicans to invade human tissues and evade the immune system. The main constituent, beta(1,3)-glucan, is remodeled by glucanosyltransferases of the GH72 family. Phr1p is responsible of glucan remodeling at neutral-alkaline pH and is essential for morphogenesis and virulence. Due to the pH-regulated expression of PHR1, the phr1-delta phenotype is manifested at pH > 6 and its severity increases with the rise in pH. We exploited the pH-conditional nature of a PHR1 null mutant to analyze the impact of glucan remodeling on the hyphal transcriptional program and the role of chitin synthases in the hyphal wall stress (HWS) response. Results: In hyphal growth inducing conditions, phr1-delta germ tubes are defective in elongation, accumulate chitin, and constitutively activate the signaling pathways mediated by the MAP kinases Mkc1p, Cek1p and Hog1p. The transcriptional profiles revealed an increase of transcript levels for genes involved in cell wall formation (CHS2 and CHS8, CRH11, PGA23, orf19.750, RBR1, RBT4, ECM331, PGA6, PGA13), protein N-glycosylation and sorting in the ER (CWH8 and CHS7), signaling (CPP1, SSK2), ion transport (FLC2, YVC1), stress response and metabolism and a reduced expression of adhesins. A transient up-regulation of DNA replication genes associated with entry into S-phase occurred whereas cell-cycle regulating genes (PCL1, PCL2, CCN1, GIN4, DUN1, CDC28) were persistently up-regulated. To test the physiological relevance of altered CHS gene expression, phr1delta chsxdelta (x = 2,3,8) mutant phenotypes were analyzed during the Y-H transition. PHR1 deletion was synthetic lethal with CHS3 loss on solid M199- medium-pH 7.5 and with CHS8 deletion on solid M199-pH 8. On Spider medium, PHR1 was synthetic lethal with CHS3 or CHS8 at pH 8. Conclusions: The absence of Phr1p triggers an adaptive response aimed to reinforce the hyphal cell wall and restore homeostasis. Chs3p is essential in preserving phr1-delta cell integrity during the Y-H transition. Our findings also unveiled an unanticipated essential role of Chs8p during filamentation on solid media. These results highlight the flexibility of fungal cells in maintaining cell wall integrity and contribute to assessments of glucan remodeling as a target for therapy.
Cell integrity; Cell wall; Chitin; Family GH72; Hyphal growth; MAP kinases; β(1,3)-glucan
Settore BIO/11 - Biologia Molecolare
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/425445
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