A high throughput screen for neutral, magnesium-dependent sphingomyelinase (SMase) was performed. One inhibitor discovered in the screen, GW4869, functioned as a noncompetitive inhibitor of the enzyme in vitro with an IC50 of 1 μM. It did not inhibit acid SMase at up to at least 150 μM. The compound was then evaluated for its ability to inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced activation of neutral SMase (N-SMase) in MCF7 cells. GW4869 (10 μM) partially inhibited TNF-induced sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis, and 20 μM of the compound was protected completely from the loss of SM. The addition of 10-20 μM GW4869 completely inhibited the initial accumulation of ceramide, whereas this effect was partially lost at later time points (24 h). These data therefore support the inhibitory action of GW4869 on N-SMase not only in vitro but also in a cellular model. The addition of GW4869 at both 10 and 20 μM did not modify cellular glutathione levels in response to TNF, suggesting that the action of GW4869 occurred down-stream of the drop in glutathione, which was shown previously to occur upstream of the activation of N-SMase. Further, whereas TNF treatment also caused a 75% increase of de novo synthesized ceramide after 20 h of incubation, GW4869, at either 10 or 20 μM, had no effect on this pathway of ceramide generation. In addition, GW4869 did not significantly impair TNF-induced NF-κB translocation to nuclei. Therefore, GW4869 does not interfere with other key TNF-mediated signaling effects. GW4869 was able, in a dose-dependent manner, to significantly protect from cell death as measured by nuclear condensation, caspase activation, PARP degradation, and trypan blue uptake. These protective effects were accompanied by significant inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase 9 activation, therefore localizing N-SMase activation upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. In conclusion, our results indicate that NSMase activation is a necessary step for the full development of the cytotoxic program induced by TNF.
|Titolo:||Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-induced cell death in MCF7 by a novel inhibitor of neutral sphingomyelinase|
|Data di pubblicazione:||25-ott-2002|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1074/jbc.M206747200|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|