The current management of athletes with cardiac arrhythmias has become complicated by the widespread use of illicit drugs, which can be arrhythmogenic.The World Anti-Doping Agency annually updates a list of prohibited substances and methods banned by the International Olympic Committee that includes different classes of substances namely, anabolic androgenic steroids, hormones and related substances, β2-agonists, diuretics, stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, glucocorticosteroids, alcohol, β-blockers and others. Almost all illicit drugs may cause, through a direct or indirect arrhythmogenic effect, a wide range of cardiac arrhythmias (focal or reentry type, supraventricular and/or ventricular) that can even be lethal and which are frequently sport activity related.A large use of illicit drugs has been documented in competitive athletes, but the arrhythmogenic effect of specific substances is not precisely known. Precipitation of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in the presence of a latent electrophysiologic substrate including some inherited cardiomyopathies, at risk of sudden death or due to long-term consumption of the substances, should raise the suspicion that illicit drugs may be a possible cause and lead cardiologists to investigate carefully this relationship and appropriately prevent the clinical consequences.
|Titolo:||Illicit drugs and cardiac arrhythmias in athletes|
|Autori interni:||DE AMBROGGI, LUIGI (Ultimo)|
|Parole Chiave:||Arrhythmias; Athletes; Doping; Illicit drugs|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/11 - Malattie dell'Apparato Cardiovascolare|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2007|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1097/HJR.0b013e3280ecfe3e|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|