During photosynthesis of higher plants, absorbed light energy is converted into chemical energy that, in part, is accumulated in the form of transitory starch within chloroplasts. In the following night, transitory starch is mobilized to sustain the heterotrophic metabolism of the plant. β-amylases are glucan hydrolases that cleave α-1,4-glycosidic bonds of starch and release maltose units from the non-reducing end of the polysaccharide chain. In Arabidopsis, nocturnal degradation of transitory starch involves mainly β-amylase-3 (BAM3). A second β-amylase isoform, β-amylase-1 (BAM1), is involved in diurnal starch degradation in guard cells, a process that sustains stomata opening. However, BAM1 also contributes to diurnal starch turnover in mesophyll cells under osmotic stress. With the aim of dissecting the role of β-amylases in osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis, mutant plants lacking either BAM1 or BAM3 were subject to a mild (150mM mannitol) and prolonged (up to one week) osmotic stress. We show here that leaves of osmotically-stressed bam1 plants accumulated more starch and fewer soluble sugars than both wild-type and bam3 plants during the day. Moreover, bam1 mutants were impaired in proline accumulation and suffered from stronger lipid peroxidation, compared with both wild-type and bam3 plants. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that carbon skeletons deriving from BAM1 diurnal degradation of transitory starch support the biosynthesis of proline required to face the osmotic stress. We propose the transitory-starch/proline interplay as an interesting trait to be tackled by breeding technologies aimingto improve drought tolerance in relevant crops.
beta-amylase 1 (BAM1) degrades transitory starch to sustain proline biosynthesis during drought stress / M. Zanella, G.L. Borghi, C. Pirone, M. Thalmann, D. Pazmino, A. Costa, D. Santelia, P. Trost, F. Sparla. - In: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY. - ISSN 1460-2431. - 67:6(2016 Mar), pp. 1819-1826.
|Titolo:||beta-amylase 1 (BAM1) degrades transitory starch to sustain proline biosynthesis during drought stress|
|Parole Chiave:||Arabidopsis; beta-amylases; drought; osmolytes; proline; transitory starch|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/04 - Fisiologia Vegetale|
|Data di pubblicazione:||mar-2016|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erv572|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|