Why did Hobbes write the Leviathan? In pursuit of an answer to this crucial question, this study suggests that Hobbes began his major political work in order to radically reform both consciences and the very notion of conscience, as this politico-theological concept was decisive to the success of his philosophical programme. During what was called «the Age of Conscience», the internal forum was invoked as the last guarantee of individual salvation and collective order. Religious and political duties were based on conscience; yet, the authentic «rule of conduct» was going through a profound crisis. By triggering «all seditions concerning religion and ecclesiastical government», conscience turned out to be a device for the subjection of the masses and a deadly disease for the political body, and therefore a major obstacle to the constitution of Hobbes's well-grounded state. The study shows how Hobbes, after criticizing the key category of Christian moral theology, gave it a scientific foundation, which made the "cum-scientia" the pivot of political unity, while securing the public sphere from private convictions on right and wrong. Through the combination of different methods, like lexicographic analysis and intellectual history, the study examines at first the problematic character of the Hobbesian conscience against the backdrop of contemporary conceptions. Then it illustrates the etymological argument of the seventh chapter of Leviathan, by depicting it as the turning point of Hobbes's reflection on the idea of conscience. Finally, the ethical and political implications of the etymology are analysed in the context of both casuistry and the Cartesian reform of probabilism.

Il problema della coscienza nella teologia politica di Thomas Hobbes / F. Rebasti ; tutor: M. Geuna, L. Foisneau ; coordinatore: P. Spinicci. - : . Università degli Studi di Milano, 2016 Feb 26. ((26. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2013. [10.13130/rebasti-francesca_phd2016-02-26].

Il problema della coscienza nella teologia politica di Thomas Hobbes.

F. Rebasti
2016-02-26

Abstract

Why did Hobbes write the Leviathan? In pursuit of an answer to this crucial question, this study suggests that Hobbes began his major political work in order to radically reform both consciences and the very notion of conscience, as this politico-theological concept was decisive to the success of his philosophical programme. During what was called «the Age of Conscience», the internal forum was invoked as the last guarantee of individual salvation and collective order. Religious and political duties were based on conscience; yet, the authentic «rule of conduct» was going through a profound crisis. By triggering «all seditions concerning religion and ecclesiastical government», conscience turned out to be a device for the subjection of the masses and a deadly disease for the political body, and therefore a major obstacle to the constitution of Hobbes's well-grounded state. The study shows how Hobbes, after criticizing the key category of Christian moral theology, gave it a scientific foundation, which made the "cum-scientia" the pivot of political unity, while securing the public sphere from private convictions on right and wrong. Through the combination of different methods, like lexicographic analysis and intellectual history, the study examines at first the problematic character of the Hobbesian conscience against the backdrop of contemporary conceptions. Then it illustrates the etymological argument of the seventh chapter of Leviathan, by depicting it as the turning point of Hobbes's reflection on the idea of conscience. Finally, the ethical and political implications of the etymology are analysed in the context of both casuistry and the Cartesian reform of probabilism.
GEUNA, MARCO
SPINICCI, PAOLO
Pourquoi Hobbes écrivit-il le Léviathan ? Afin de répondre à cette question cruciale, l'étude suggère que Hobbes entreprit son œuvre politique majeure pour réaliser une réforme radicale des consciences et de la conscience comme catégorie théologico-politique décisive pour assurer le succès de son programme philosophique. Au cours de celle qu’on a rebaptisée « the Age of Conscience », le for interne était invoqué comme la garantie dernière du salut individuel et de l'ordre collectif. Chaque devoir, qu'il fût religieux ou politique, se basait sur la conscience ; toutefois, la « règle du vivre » traversait une crise profonde. Source de « all seditions concerning religion and ecclesiastical government », la conscience s'était révélée un dispositif de contrôle des masses et une maladie mortelle pour le corps politique et, donc, un obstacle majeur à la constitution de l'État bien fondé hobbesien. L'étude montre comment Hobbes, après avoir soumis la catégorie-clé de la théologie morale chrétienne à une critique radicale, lui donna un fondement scientifique, qui fit de la "cum-scientia" un pivot inébranlable de l'unité de l'État, tout en mettant la sphère publique à l'abri des convictions privées sur le juste et l'injuste. Combinant des méthodologies différentes, comme l'analyse lexicographique et l'histoire conceptuelle, l'étude examine d'abord le caractère problématique de la conscience hobbesienne par rapport aux conceptions contemporaines. Ensuite, elle illustre l'argument étymologique du Léviathan comme point culminant de la réflexion hobbesienne sur la conscience, pour enfin en analyser les implications éthiques et politiques dans le milieu de la casuistique et de la réforme cartésienne du probabilisme.
Hobbes; coscienza; teologia politica; argomento etimologico; casuistica; Cartesio; probabilismo
Settore SPS/02 - Storia delle Dottrine Politiche
Il problema della coscienza nella teologia politica di Thomas Hobbes / F. Rebasti ; tutor: M. Geuna, L. Foisneau ; coordinatore: P. Spinicci. - : . Università degli Studi di Milano, 2016 Feb 26. ((26. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2013. [10.13130/rebasti-francesca_phd2016-02-26].
Doctoral Thesis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/367414
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