Abstract Study n. 1: Aujeszky Disease: serological and virological surveillance in Italy during 2012-2014 Although wild boar can act as a persistent Aujeszky’s disease (AD) reservoir, limited data are available on long-term epidemiology in free-ranging wild boar living in areas where industrial swine herds are limited. Hence, this study provides crucial information, which fills this knowledge gap, on the natural dynamics of AD infection. From 3260 sera sampled during eight hunting seasons, 162 (4.97%) were tested positive. Factors, including the animal’s age class, and the sampling year, had significant effects on the probability of the wild boar being seropositive, while wild boar mean abundance per area, yearly abundance and the total number of pig farms, as well as interactions among age, year and sex, were not significant. In particular, a positive trend of seroprevalence was observed over the years, with values ranging from 2.1 to 10.8%. This long-term surveillance showed an increase in seroprevalence with a higher probability of being seropositive in older individuals and the independence of wild boar seropositivity from the likelihood of contact with pigs in the area. Study n. 2: Genomic characterization of pseudorabies virus strains isolated from swine in Italy In this study, we undertook the genomic characterization of 44 pseudorabies virus (PRV) strains originated on pig farms isolated in Italy during 1984–2010. The characterization was based on partial sequencing of the UL44 (gC) and US8 (gE) genes. Thirty six porcine PRV strains, which were closely related to those isolated in Europe and America in the last 20 years belong to cluster B in both phylogenetic trees. Six porcine strains that do not belong to cluster B are related in both gE and gC phylogenetic trees to the ‘old’ porcine PRV strains isolated in the 1970s and 1980s. In the last two decades, the presence of these strains in domestic pig populations has been reduced drastically, whereas they are prevalent in wild boar. The two remaining strains have an interesting genomic profile, characterized by the gC gene being closely related to the old porcine PRV strains, and the gE gene being similar to that of recently isolated strains. These results provide interesting insight into the genomic characterization of PRV strains and reveal a clear differentiation between the strains isolated from wild boar and those originating from domestic pigs. Study n. 3: Detection and molecular analysis of pseudorabies virus strains isolated from dogs and wild boar in Italy Aujeszky’s disease (AD) is one of the most economically important diseases of farmed pigs. Wild boars can act as reservoirs and might represent a potential threat for domestic animals, including dogs. The aim of this study was to report the results of an AD survey based on the Pseudorabies virus (PRV) genome detection in samples of dogs clinically suspected of AD and of wild boars collected during four consecutive hunting seasons in the period 2010–2014. Genomic characterization was based on the partial gC sequence of the Italian strains and the comparison with those from domestic pigs and European PRV strains circulating in wild boars. The Italian PRV strains were mainly distributed into three different clusters and revealed two interesting findings. First, there was a clear distinction between the viral strains that were isolated from dogs used for hunting and subsequently traced back to wild boars and the strains that were isolated from working dogs and subsequently found to be closely related to domestic pigs. Second, the Italian epidemiological situation was found to be different from those of European countries in that the Italian situation was characterized by the presence of both the typical Italian clades 1 and 2 and supported by new patterns of aa deletions/insertions. Italian clade 1 included strains from hunting dogs and two Italian wild boars, and Italian clade 2 grouped with recent strains from dogs that were unable to hunt and domestic pigs that were related to one old reference strain (S66) and not included elsewhere. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of PRV strains are therefore necessary to improve the understanding of the distribution of the PRV clusters and their evolution.
DETECTION AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS STRAINS ISOLATED IN ITALY. / E. Sozzi ; coordinatore: G. Sironi ; supervisor: G. Grilli. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. DIPARTIMENTO DI SCIENZE VETERINARIE E SANITA' PUBBLICA, 2016 Jan 19. ((28. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2015.
|Titolo:||DETECTION AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS STRAINS ISOLATED IN ITALY.|
|Supervisori e coordinatori interni:||SIRONI, GIUSEPPE|
|Data di pubblicazione:||19-gen-2016|
|Parole Chiave:||PRV; gE; gC; Swine; dog; wild boar|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||*** Settore non presente ***|
|Citazione:||DETECTION AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS STRAINS ISOLATED IN ITALY. / E. Sozzi ; coordinatore: G. Sironi ; supervisor: G. Grilli. - Milano : Università degli studi di Milano. DIPARTIMENTO DI SCIENZE VETERINARIE E SANITA' PUBBLICA, 2016 Jan 19. ((28. ciclo, Anno Accademico 2015.|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.13130/sozzi-enrica_phd2016-01-19|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Tesi di dottorato|