Mixed cryoglobulinaemia syndrome (MCS) is associated with a number of infectious, autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders, particularly chronic hepatitis C infection. Although circulating mixed cryoglobulins (cMCGs) are a frequent finding in HCV-infected patients, only a minority of them develop a frank MCS. The only available data concerning the prevalence of MCS, which is generally considered a rare disease, come from hospital records. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the prevalence of cMCGs and MCS in a population-based study.All of the adult residents in Origgio, a town of about seven thousand inhabitants in northern Italy, were mailed a validated questionnaire, and a randomly selected sample of respondents was invited to undergo a clinical examination and laboratory tests including the determination of cMCGs.The 1594 respondents to the questionnaire (54.3% women, 64.5% aged >. 49. years) accounted for 26.4% of the total adult population. Forty-nine (3.1%) positively responded to at least two questions, including a disproportionately high number of people aged >. 70. years (p. =. 0.001). Of the 266 randomly selected subjects invited to undergo a clinical examination and laboratory tests, 147 accepted, 30 (20.4%) of whom had asymptomatic type III cMCGs and four MCS. The risk of cMCG positivity was independently associated with C4 levels of <. 16. mg/dL (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-18.08; p. =. 0.040) and HCV positivity (AOR 6.87, 95% CI 1.16-40.79; p. =. 0.034). No co-morbidities known to be related to cMCG production could be detected in more than 50% of the positive cases. After including the other positive respondents who agreed to undergo a clinical examination, the number of diagnosed MCS increased to seven: five HCV-related, one HBV-related, and one essential MCS.In conclusion, MCS seems to be more frequent than expected for a 'rare' disease, and the unexpectedly high prevalence of cMCGs raises questions about the frequency with which they are triggered, the spectrum of diseases involved in triggering them, and their real role as disease indicators. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
|Titolo:||Prevalence of mixed cryoglobulinaemia syndrome and circulating cryoglobulins in a population-based survey : the Origgio study|
|Parole Chiave:||chronic hepatitis c infection; cryoglobulins; mixed cryoglobulinaemia syndrome; cryoglobulinemia; cryoglobulins; humans; Italy; prevalence; randomized controlled trials as topic; surveys and questionnaires; immunology; immunology and allergy|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore MED/17 - Malattie Infettive|
|Data di pubblicazione:||giu-2014|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.autrev.2013.11.005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|