4-aminoquinoline antiplasmodials interfere with the biocrystallization of the malaria pigment, a key step of the malaria parasite metabolism. It is commonly believed that these drugs set stacking π ··· π interactions with the Fe-protoporphyrin scaffold of the free heme, even though the details of the heme:drug recognition process remain elusive. In this work, the local coordination of Fe(III) ions in acidic solutions of hematin at room temperature was investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy in the 4.0–5.5 pH range, both in the presence and in the absence of the antimalarial drug chloroquine. EXAFS results were complemented by DFT simulations in polarizable continuum media to model solvent effects. We found evidence that a complex where the drug quinoline nitrogen is coordinated with the iron center might coexist with formerly proposed adduct geometries, based on stacking interactions. Charge-assisted hydrogen bonds among lateral chains of the two molecules play a crucial role in stabilizing this complex, whose formation is favored by the presence of lipid micelles. The direct Fe–N bond could reversibly block the axial position in the Fe 1st coordination shell in free heme, acting as an inhibitor for the crystallization of the malaria pigment without permanently hampering the catalytic activity of the redox center. These findings are discussed in the light of possible implications on the engineering of drugs able to thwart the adaptability of the malaria parasite against classical aminoquinoline-based therapies.

On the molecular basis of the activity of the antimalarial drug chloroquine : EXAFS-assisted DFT evidence of a direct Fe–N bond with free heme in solution / G. Macetti, S. Rizzato, F. Beghi, L. Silvestrini, L. Lo Presti. - In: PHYSICA SCRIPTA. - ISSN 0031-8949. - 91:2(2016 Feb), pp. 023001.1-023001.13.

On the molecular basis of the activity of the antimalarial drug chloroquine : EXAFS-assisted DFT evidence of a direct Fe–N bond with free heme in solution

G. Macetti;S. Rizzato;F. Beghi;L. Lo Presti
2016-02

Abstract

4-aminoquinoline antiplasmodials interfere with the biocrystallization of the malaria pigment, a key step of the malaria parasite metabolism. It is commonly believed that these drugs set stacking π ··· π interactions with the Fe-protoporphyrin scaffold of the free heme, even though the details of the heme:drug recognition process remain elusive. In this work, the local coordination of Fe(III) ions in acidic solutions of hematin at room temperature was investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy in the 4.0–5.5 pH range, both in the presence and in the absence of the antimalarial drug chloroquine. EXAFS results were complemented by DFT simulations in polarizable continuum media to model solvent effects. We found evidence that a complex where the drug quinoline nitrogen is coordinated with the iron center might coexist with formerly proposed adduct geometries, based on stacking interactions. Charge-assisted hydrogen bonds among lateral chains of the two molecules play a crucial role in stabilizing this complex, whose formation is favored by the presence of lipid micelles. The direct Fe–N bond could reversibly block the axial position in the Fe 1st coordination shell in free heme, acting as an inhibitor for the crystallization of the malaria pigment without permanently hampering the catalytic activity of the redox center. These findings are discussed in the light of possible implications on the engineering of drugs able to thwart the adaptability of the malaria parasite against classical aminoquinoline-based therapies.
antimalarial drugs; chloroquine; EXAFS; DFT calculations
Settore CHIM/02 - Chimica Fisica
28-dic-2015
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/353324
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