It has recently been shown that the highly protected segments 24-34 (S-2) and 83-93 (S-8) of each of the two 99-mers of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease play an essential role in the folding of the monomers, giving rise to the so-called (postcritical) folding nucleus ((FN) minimum condensation unit ensuring folding) when they dock. This scenario received further support from model calculations that demonstrated that the peptide p-S-8, displaying an amino acid sequence identical to the corresponding (83-93) segment of the monomer, can be used to interfere with the formation of the FN and eventually to inhibit folding by docking the fragment 24-34. Experiments in vitro and in cells infected with ex vivo wild-type and multiresistant HIV isolates confirm that the inhibition power of p-S-8 is robust. On the other hand, there is no direct evidence demonstrating the validity of the proposed mechanism of inhibition associated with p-S-8. To shed light on this question and to provide the basis for the design of a molecule mimetic to p-S-8, to be used as lead of an eventual drug against AIDS, we study, in this paper, with the help of all-atom simulations in explicit solvent and the novel method of metadynamics combined with parallel tempering: a), the free energy and the equilibrium structure of each of the peptides p-S-2 and p-S-8; b), the details of the docking mechanism of the two peptides and the free energy associated with this process. Whereas p-S-8 is found to be well structured, p-S-2 is rather flexible, wrapping itself around p-S-8 to give rise to the FN, which is stabilized by three particular hydrogen bonds.

Insight in the folding inhibition of the HIV--1 protease by a small peptide / M. Bonomi, F. L. Gervasio, G. Tiana, D. Provasi, R. A. Broglia, M. Parrinello. - In: BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL. - ISSN 0006-3495. - 93:8(2007), pp. 2813-2821.

Insight in the folding inhibition of the HIV--1 protease by a small peptide

G. Tiana;D. Provasi;R. A. Broglia;
2007

Abstract

It has recently been shown that the highly protected segments 24-34 (S-2) and 83-93 (S-8) of each of the two 99-mers of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease play an essential role in the folding of the monomers, giving rise to the so-called (postcritical) folding nucleus ((FN) minimum condensation unit ensuring folding) when they dock. This scenario received further support from model calculations that demonstrated that the peptide p-S-8, displaying an amino acid sequence identical to the corresponding (83-93) segment of the monomer, can be used to interfere with the formation of the FN and eventually to inhibit folding by docking the fragment 24-34. Experiments in vitro and in cells infected with ex vivo wild-type and multiresistant HIV isolates confirm that the inhibition power of p-S-8 is robust. On the other hand, there is no direct evidence demonstrating the validity of the proposed mechanism of inhibition associated with p-S-8. To shed light on this question and to provide the basis for the design of a molecule mimetic to p-S-8, to be used as lead of an eventual drug against AIDS, we study, in this paper, with the help of all-atom simulations in explicit solvent and the novel method of metadynamics combined with parallel tempering: a), the free energy and the equilibrium structure of each of the peptides p-S-2 and p-S-8; b), the details of the docking mechanism of the two peptides and the free energy associated with this process. Whereas p-S-8 is found to be well structured, p-S-2 is rather flexible, wrapping itself around p-S-8 to give rise to the FN, which is stabilized by three particular hydrogen bonds.
Free-energy landscape ; molecular-dynamics ; transition-state ; drug-resistance ; denatured state ; model proteins ; lattice model ; metadynamics ; mutations ; stability
Settore FIS/03 - Fisica della Materia
Settore FIS/04 - Fisica Nucleare e Subnucleare
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/34813
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