Xylose together with other pentose and hexose sugars can be dehydrated to produce interesting platform chemical compounds, like 5-hydroxyfurfural (HMF) and furfural. This study continues our investigation on the niobium oxide based catalysts in connection with the research of adequate solvents systems to minimize catalyst deactivation and increase catalyst stability and durability during the dehydration of sugars. Silica-zirconia supported niobia samples (10 wt.% of Nb) prepared by impregnation or sol-gel in comparison with pure niobic acid are here presented for xylose dehydration. The reactions have been studied at different temperatures (130-180 degrees C) in batch or fixed bed continuous catalytic reactors in various solvents. Green solvents soluble in the aqueous solution of xylose or biphasic systems have been taken into account: water, water-isopropanol mixtures, water-gamma-valerolactone, and water-cyclopentylmethyl ether. The surface acidities of the catalysts have been measured in cyclohexane (intrinsic acidity) and also in water to determine the effective catalyst acidity. The continuous tests and batch-recycling tests showed that the supported Nb-catalysts, even if initially less active, are more stable than niobic acid. The presence of isopropanol in water improves both the activity and stability of the catalysts in comparison with water and the use of cyclopentylmethyl ether gave the most interesting selectivity to furfural preserving the catalyst stability.
|Titolo:||Exploitment of niobium oxide effective acidity for xylose dehydration to furfural|
|Parole Chiave:||Xylose dehydration; Furfural synthesis; Green solvents; Niobium oxide; Solid acid catalysts; Catalyst intrinsic and effective acidities|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore CHIM/02 - Chimica Fisica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.cattod.2015.01.018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|