Purpose Vitamin K1 (VK1) is a molecule abundant in some species of leaf vegetables with beneficial effects in humans following administration on the skin. This work investigates the possibility to use formulations based on lipid vesicles, namely liposomes, transfersomes and ethosomes, suitable to be administered on the skin by nebulization and alternative to fat semisolid preparations present on the market. Methods Lipid vesicles encapsulating VK1 were prepared and characterized. Ex-vivo experiments on Franz cells were carried out to study the VK1 accumulation/permeation in/ through the skin. Vesicles interaction with the skin was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATRFTIR) spectroscopy. Results All developed carriers were stable following longterm storage and were not altered following nebulization. In ex-vivo experiments, vesicles with the highest deformability index, namely transfersomes and ethosomes, led to an enhanced VK1 accumulation/permeation into/through the skin. Interestingly, the nebulization of the vesicles led to a further increase of VK1 accumulation into the skin. Conclusions In conclusion, to achieve a local effect of VK1 on the skin, the topical nebulization of VK1-containing transfersomes could offer a good compromise between a high VK1 penetration into the skin and a limited permeation through it.
|Titolo:||Nanocarriers to Enhance the Accumulation of Vitamin K1 into the Skin|
|Parole Chiave:||Franz cells; lipid-vesicles; nebulization; skin; vitamin K1|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore CHIM/09 - Farmaceutico Tecnologico Applicativo|
|Data di pubblicazione:||apr-2016|
|Data ahead of print / Data di stampa:||30-nov-2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s11095-015-1836-6|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|